Professor Monica Boyd
University of Toronto
Department of Sociology
Toronto, Ontario
M5S 2J4


Tel: 416-946-5906
Fax: 416-978-3969
Curriculum Vitae Teaching Professional Services Research Team
Immigrant Women

My interest in gender inequality as it relates to immigrant women began in graduate school and was part of my research agenda for the Canadian mobility project. My early research, conducted in the mid-1970s, which emphazed the invisibility of immigrant women and the effects of entry status on their integration, were among the first works on the topic; I also examined the barriers and difficulties faced by immigrant women in the labour force. My recent research emphasizes the triple disadvantages faced by immigrant women of not knowing English or French, being a member of a visible minority group, and being female. I also undertake comparative work and look at the integration issues associated with how immigrant women are admitted into their countries of destination.

As part of the United Nation’s “Beijing - 10 years later” and High Level Dialogue on Migration mandated by the Secretary General initiative, I recently wrote a number of papers and reports on the situations facing migrant women for the United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women, for the United Nations Population Division and for the United Nations Research Institute on Social Development.

Select Bibliography on Immigrant Women

2008 (forthcoming) Immigrant Women and Earning Inequalities (Monica Boyd and Jessica Yiu). In Vijay Agnew (ed.) Racialized Immigrant Women in Canada: Essays on Health, Violence and Equity. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
2008 Finding a Place in Stratified Structures: Migrant Women in North America. (Monica Boyd and Deanna Pikkov). Pp. 19-58 in Nicole Piper (editor), New Perspectives on Gender and Migration: Livelihoods, Rights, and Entitlements. London: Routledge.
2008 Striking the Right Balance: The Recruitment of Female Migrant Workers to Canada. (Monica Boyd and Joanne Nowak) FOCALpoint (Canadian Foundation for the Americas) 6(10) December. Go to: http://www.focal.ca/publications/focalpoint/index_e.asp
2006 Gender aspects of international migration to Canada and the United States. Presented at the International Symposium on International Migration and Development. International Symposium on International Migration and Development. June 21, Turin, Italy.
2006 Women in International Migration: The Context of Exit and Entry for Empowerment and Exploitation. Presented in the High-level panel on "The Gender Dimension of International Migration, United Nations, Commission on the Status of Women, March 2, New York City.
2005 Migration in an Interconnected and Gendered World. Presented at the Forum
on the United Nations Global Commission Report on International Migration, New York City, October 25. To be published in a monograph, Joseph Chamie and Mary Powers (eds.)

(Background: Acting on the encouragement of the United Nations Secretary-General, the Global Commission on International Migration was established on December 9, 2003 in Geneva. The mandate of the Commission is to place international migration on the global agenda; analyze gaps in current policy approaches to migration; examine linkages with other issue-areas; and offer recommendations to the United Nations Secretary-General, governments and other stakeholders).


Gendering Migration, Livelihood and Entitlements: Migrant Women in Canada and the United States. (Monica Boyd and Deanna Pikkov). Occasional Paper # 6. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. (Refereed).

2004 Gender Equality and Migrating Women. Unpublished paper prepared for the UN Division for the Advancement of Women, and incorporated into their publication "World Survey on the Role of Women in Development 2005: Women and International Migration," launched March 3, 2005 at 49th session of the Commission on the Status of Women, NYC.
2004 International Labour Migration of Women: Past. Present and Future Challenges in North America and Europe. Expert Paper Series CM/MMW/2003/EP.2 (14 January 2004). United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women.
2003 Women and Migration: Incorporating Gender into International Migration Theory. (Monica Boyd and Elizabeth Grieco). Migration Information Source Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute.
1999 Triumphant Transitions: Socioeconomic Achievements of the Second Generation in Canada (Monica Boyd and Elizabeth Grieco). International Migration Review (Winter): 857-876. Lead article
1999 Integrating Gender, Language and Visible Minority Groups. Pp. 282-306 in Shiva Halli and Leo Driedger (eds.) Immigrant Canada: Demographic, Economic and Social Challenges. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Gender, Refugee Status and Permanent Settlement. Gender Issues 16, no. 4 (Fall): 5-21. Reprinted in Rita Simon (ed.)2001. Immigrant Women . NJ: Transaction Press.

1998 "Women and Migration: Incorporating Gender into International Migration Theory." (Elizabeth M. Grieco and Monica Boyd). Working Paper Series 98-139. Center for the Study of Population and Demography. Florida State University.
1997 Migration Policy, Family Membership and Female Dependency: Canada and Germany. Pp. 142-169 in Patricia Evans, Thelma McCormack and Gerda Wekerle (eds.) Remaking the Welfare State. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
1996 Female Migrant Labour in North America: Trends and Issues for the 1990s. Pp. 193-213 in Alan Simmons (ed.) International Migration, Refugee Flows and Human Rights in North America: the Impact of Trade and Restructuring. New York: Center for Migration Studies.
1996 Gender Inequality in the Canadian Policy Context: A Mosaic of Approaches (Monica Boyd and Susan McDaniel). The World Review of Sociology (Revista Mundial de Sociologia) 2: 25-50.
1995 Migration Regulations and Sex Selective Outcomes in Settlement and European Countries. Pp. 83-98 in International Migration Policies and the Status of Female Migrants. New York: United Nations Population Division.

Canada's Refugee Flows: Gender Inequality. Canadian Social Trends 30 (Spring): 7-10. '

Reprinted in Canadian Social Trends. Volume 3. Toronto: Thompson Press, 2000, pp. 83-87 (note: this is a highly culled selection of articles, undertaken by a private press).

1994 Refugees to North America: Gender Issues and Implications. (Linda Gordon and Monica Boyd). Presented at the 1994 annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Miami, May.
1994 Language, Economic Status and Integration: Australia and Canada Compared. (Monica Boyd, John deVries and Keith Simkin). Pp. 549-577 in Lois Foster (ed.) Immigration and Refugee Policy: Australian and Canada Compared. Volume II. Melbourne, Australia: University of Melbourne Press.
1993 The Canadian Ethnic Mosaic Recast for the 1990s (Carol Agocs and Monica Boyd, alphabetical order). Pp. 330-352 in James Curtis, Edward Grabb and Neil Guppy (eds.) Social Inequality in Canada: Patterns, Problems and Policies. Toronto: Prentice-Hall Canada.
1992 Foreign-Born, Female, Old and Poor. Canadian Woman Studies 12:4 (Summer):50-52.
1992 Reading Skills of the Immigrant Population. Canadian Social Trends 26 (Autumn):22-24.
1992 Gender Issues in Immigration Trends and Language Fluency: Canada and the United States. Pp. 305-372 in Barry R. Chiswick (ed.), Immigration Language and Ethnic Issues: Public Policy in Canada and the United States. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute.
1992 Gender, Visible Minority and Immigrant Earnings Inequality: Reassessing an Employment Equity Premise. Pp. 279-321 in Vic Satzewich (ed.), Deconstructing a Nation: Immigration, Multiculturalism and Racism in the 1990s Canada. Toronto: Fernwood Press.
1991 Gender, Nativity and Literacy: Proficiency and Training Issues. Pp. 85-93 in Statistics Canada, Adult Literacy in Canada: Results of A National Survey. Catalogue 89-525E. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
1991 Immigration and Living Arrangements: Elderly Women in Canada. International Migration Review 25 (Spring): 4-27. (lead article)
1991 Background Paper: Migrant Women and Integration Policies. International Conference on Migration. Organized by OECD and the Italian Government. Rome, Italy, March 13-15,1991

Immigrant Women: Language, Socioeconomic Inequalities and Policy Issues. Pp. 275-296 in Shiva Halli, Frank Trovato and Leo Driedger (eds.), Ethnic Demography: Canadian Immigrant, Racial and Cultural Variations. Ottawa: Carleton University Press.

Reprinted in B. A. Burnaby and A. Cummings (eds.) Socio-Political Aspects of ESL, Toronto: OISE Press, 1992, pp. 141-159.


Family and Personal Networks in International Migration: Recent Developments and New Agendas. International Migration Review (Silver Jubilee Issue) 23: 3 (Fall): 638-671.

Reprinted in Robin Cohen (ed.) The Sociology of Migration (Series: The International Library of Studies on Migration) Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 1996.

1989 Immigration and Income Security Policies in Canada: Implications for Elderly Immigrant Women. Population Research and Policy Review 8: 5-24.
1988 Synthesis Report of the Monitoring Panel on Migrant Women. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 168 pp.
1987 Immigrant Women in Canada: Entry Status and Disadvantage. Pp. 5-10 in International Settlement Canada: Research Resource Division for Refugees. Vol. 1, No. .
1986 The Feminization of Temporary Workers: The Canadian Case (Monica Boyd and Chris Taylor). International Migration (Geneva) 24 (December): 717-734.
1986 Temporary Workers in Canada: A Multifaceted Phenomenon (Monica Boyd, Chris Taylor and Paul Delaney). International Migration Review 20 (Winter): 929-950.

Immigrant Women in Canada. Pp. 45-61 in Rita J. Simon and Caroline Brettell (eds.), International Migration: The Female Experience. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Allanheld Publishers.

Reprinted in A.T. McLaren (ed.), Gender and Society. Toronto: Copp Pitman Ltd, pp. 316-336, 1988.

1985 Educational and Occupational Attainments of Native-born Canadian Men and Women. In Boyd, M., Goyder, J., Jones, F., McRoberts, H. A., Pineo, P., & Porter, J. (eds.) Ascription and Achievement: Studies in Mobility and Status Attainment in Canada. Ottawa: Carleton University Press.
1984 At a Disadvantage: Occupational Attainments of Canadian Immigrant Women. International Migration Review 18 (Winter): 1091-1119.



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