This document contains references cited in the project description. Additional references relating to the project can be found in the following locations:
The Contrast Archive is a list of publications and conference presentations that have come out of the project.
The Annotated Bibliography on Contrast and Complexity is an annotated list of references relevant to contrast and to related topics such as complexity, underspecification, and markedness.
Anderson, J.. 2005. Old English i-umlaut (for the umpteenth time). English Language and Linguistics 9. 195–227.
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Archangeli, D. 1988. Aspects of underspecification theory. Phonology 5. 183–207.
Archangeli, D. & D. Pulleyblank. 1989. Yoruba vowel harmony. Linguistic Inquiry 20. 173–217.
Avery, P. 1996. The representation of voicing contrasts. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.
Avery, P., B. E. Dresher & K. Rice. forthcoming. Contrast in phonology: Theory, perception, acquisition. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Avery, P. & K. Rice. 1989. Segment structure and coronal underspecification. Phonology 6. 179–200.
Balcaen, M. J. 1998. Neutralization and enhancement: Vowel harmony in Aka. Ms., University of Toronto.
Battistella, E. 1990. Markedness: The evaluative superstructure of language. Albany: SUNY Press.
Beckman, J. 1997a. Positional faithfulness, positional neutralization and Shona vowel harmony. Phonology 14. 1–46.
Beckman, J. 1997b. Positional faithfulness. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Béjar, S. 1998. Segmental inventory and the representation of voicing contrasts. Paper presented at the MOT Phonology Workshop, University of Ottawa.
Boersma, P. 1998. Functional phonology: Formalizing the interaction between articulatory and perceptual drives. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics.
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Calabrese, A. 1995. A constraint-based theory of phonological markedness and simplification procedures. Linguistic Inquiry 26. 373–463.
Calabrese, A. 2005. Markedness and economy in a derivational model of phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Casali, R. F. 2003. [ATR] value asymmetries and underlying vowel inventory structure in Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan. Linguistic Typology 7. 307–382.
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Causley, T. 1999. Complexity and markedness in Optimality Theory. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.
Cebrian, J. 2002. Phonetic similarity, syllabification, and phonotactic constraints in the acquisition of a second language contrast. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.
Chomsky, N. & M. Halle. 1968. The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
Clements, G. N. 1985. The geometry of phonological features. Phonology Yearbook 2. 225–252.
Clements, G. N. 1988. Toward a substantive theory of feature specification. In J. Blevins & J. Carter (eds.), Proceedings of NELS 18. 79–93.
Clements, G. N. 2001. Representational economy in constraint-based phonology. In T.A. Hall (ed.), Distinctive feature theory, 71–146. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Clements, G. N. 2005. The role of features in speech sound inventories. [To appear in E. Raimy & C. Cairns (eds.), Contemporary Views on Architecture and Representations in Phonological Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.]
Clements G. N. & E. V. Hume. 1995.The internal organization of speech sounds. In J. A. Goldsmith (ed.), Handbook of phonology. Oxford: Blackwell. 245–306.
Cohn, A. 1993. Nasalization in English: Phonology or phonetics. Phonology 10. 43–81.
Compton, R. in progress. Contrast in the consonant inventories of Inuit, Greenlandic and Yupik. Ms., University of Toronto.
D’Arcy, A. 2001. Yawelmani reexamined: A contrastive analysis. Ms., University of Toronto.
D’Arcy, A. 2003. Unconditional neutrality: Vowel harmony in a two-place model. Ms., University of Toronto.
de Lacy, P. 2006. Markedness, reduction and preservation in phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dinnsen, D. A. 1992. Variation in developing and fully developed phonetic inventories. In C. Ferguson, L. Menn & C. Stoel-Gammon (eds.), Phonological development: Models, research, implications. Timonium, MD: York Press. 191–210.
Dinnsen, D. A. 1996. Context sensitive underspecification and the acquisition of phonetic contrasts. Journal of Child Language 23. 31–55.
Dinnsen, D. A., S. B. Chin, M. Elbert & T. W. Powell. 1990. Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 33. 28–37.
Dresher, B. E. 2002. Determining contrastiveness: A missing chapter in the history of phonology. In S. Burelle & S. Somesfalean (eds.), Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association, 82–93. Département de linguistique et de didactiques des langues, Université due Québec à Montréal, 2002.
Dresher, B. E. 2003a. Contrast and asymmetries in inventories. In A.-M. di Sciullo (ed.), Asymmetry in grammar, Volume 2: Morphology, phonology, acquisition, 239–257. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Dresher, B. E. 2003b. The contrastive hierarchy in phonology. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics (Special Issue on Contrast in Phonology), 20. 47–62.
Dresher, B. E. 2004. On the acquisition of phonological contrasts. In J. van Kampen & S. Baauw (eds.), Proceedings of GALA 2003, Volume 1 (LOT Occasional Series 3), 27–46. LOT, Utrecht.
Dresher, B. E. forthcoming. The contrastive hierarchy in phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dresher, B. E. & H. van der Hulst. 1998. Head-dependent asymmetries in phonology: Complexity and visibility. Phonology 15. 317–352.
Dresher, B. E., G. L. Piggott & K. Rice. 1994. Contrast in phonology: Overview. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 13.1. iii–xvii.
Dresher, B.E. & K. Rice. 1994. Complexity in phonological representations. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 12. i–iv.
Dresher, B. E. & X. Zhang. 2005. Contrast and phonological activity in Manchu vowel systems. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique 50, 45–82.
Dyck, C. 1995. Constraining the phonology-phonetics interface, with exemplification from Spanish and Italian dialects. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.
Fikkert, P. 1994. On the Acquisition of Prosodic Structure. (HIL dissertations 6). Dordrecht: IGC Printing.
Flemming, E. 2001. Scalar and categorical phenomena in a unified model of phonetics and phonology. Phonology 18. 7–44.
Flemming, E. 2002. Auditory representations in phonology. New York, London: Routledge.
Frigeni, C. 2002. Metaphony in Campidanian Sardinian: A domain-based analysis. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 20. 63–91.
Frigeni, C. in progress. Representations and domains in the phonology of Sardinian. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Toronto.
Frisch, S. 1996. Similarity and frequency in phonology. Ph. D. dissertation, Northwestern University.
Frisch, S., J. Pierrehumbert & M. Broe 2004. Similarity avoidance and the OCP. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 22. 179–228.
Ghini, M. 2001a. Asymmetries in the phonology of Miogliola. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Ghini, M. 2001b. Place of articulation first. In T.A. Hall (ed.), Distinctive feature theory. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 147–176.
Hale, M. & C. Reiss. 2000. Substance abuse and disfunctionalism: Current trends in phonology. Linguistic Inquiry 31. 157–169.
Hale, M. & C. Reiss. 2001. Phonological theory without substance. In N. Burton-Roberts, P. Carr, & G. Docherty (eds.), Phonological knowledge: Conceptual and empirical foundations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 161–184.
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Hall, D. C. 2002. Prophylactic features and implicit contrast. Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Contrast in Phonology, University of Toronto.
Hall, D. C. 2007. The role and representation of contrast in phonological theory. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.
Halle, M. 1959. The sound pattern of Russian. The Hague: Mouton.
Halle, M., B. Vaux, & A. Wolfe. 2000. On feature spreading and the representation of place of articulation. Linguistic Inquiry 31. 387–444.
Haspelmath, M. 2006. Against markedness (and what to replace it with). Journal of Linguistics 42. 25–70.
Hayes, B., R. Kirchner & D. Steriade (eds.). 2004. Phonetically-based phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Herd, J. 2005. Loanword adaptation and the evaluation of similarity. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 24. 65–116.
Hirayama, M. 2002. Contrast in Japanese vowels. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Linguistic Association.
Hirayama, M. in progress. Accent in Japanese. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.
Hulst, H.G. van der. 1994. Radical CV phonology: The locational gesture. UCL Working Papers in Linguistics 6. 439–477.
Hulst, H.G. van der. 1995. Radical CV phonology: The categorial gesture. In J. Durand & F. Katamba (eds.), Frontiers of phonology: Atoms, structures, derivations. London: Longman. 80–116.
Hulst, H. G. van der. 1996. Radical CV Phonology: The segment-syllable connection. In J. Durand & B. Laks (eds.), Current trends in phonology: Models and methods. 333–361. Salford: ESRI.
Hume, E. 2003. Language specific markedness: The case of place of articulation . Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology. 9. 295–310.
Hume, E. & G. Tserdanelis. 2002. Labial unmarkedness in Sri Lankan Portuguese Creole. Phonology 19. 441–458.
Hyman, L. M. 2001. Vowel harmony in Gunu. Studies in African Linguistics 30. 146–170.
Hyman, L. M. 2002. On the limits of phonetic determinism in phonology: *NC revisited. In E. Hume & K. Johnson (eds.), The role of perception in phonology. Academic Press.
Hyman, L. M. 2003. ‘Abstract’ vowel harmony in Ka$lç$N: A system-driven account. In P. Sauzet & A. Zribi-Hertz (eds.), Typologie des langues d’Afrique et universaux de la grammaire, 85–112. Paris: l’Harmattan.
Ingram, D. 1988. Jakobson revisited: Some evidence from the acquisition of Polish phonology. Lingua 75. 55–82.
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Jongstra, W. 2002. The perception and production of word-initial consonant clusters by Dutch L1 learners. Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Contrast in Phonology, University of Toronto.
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