References: Markedness and the Contrastive Hierarchy in Phonology

Markedness and the Contrastive Hierarchy in Phonology


This document contains references cited in the project description. Additional references relating to the project can be found in the following locations:

The Contrast Archive is a list of publications and conference presentations that have come out of the project.

The Annotated Bibliography on Contrast and Complexity is an annotated list of references relevant to contrast and to related topics such as complexity, underspecification, and markedness.

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Anderson, J.. 2005. Old English i-umlaut (for the umpteenth time). English Language and Linguistics 9. 195–227.

Anderson, J. & C. Ewen. 1987. Principles of Dependency Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Archangeli, D. 1984. Underspecification in Yawelmani phonology and morphology. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.

Archangeli, D. 1988. Aspects of underspecification theory. Phonology 5. 183–207.

Archangeli, D. & D. Pulleyblank. 1989. Yoruba vowel harmony. Linguistic Inquiry 20. 173–217.

Avery, P. 1996. The representation of voicing contrasts. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.

Avery, P., B. E. Dresher & K. Rice. forthcoming. Contrast in phonology: Theory, perception, acquisition. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Avery, P. & K. Rice. 1989. Segment structure and coronal underspecification. Phonology 6. 179–200.

Balcaen, M. J. 1998. Neutralization and enhancement: Vowel harmony in Aka. Ms., University of Toronto.

Battistella, E. 1990. Markedness: The evaluative superstructure of language. Albany: SUNY Press.

Beckman, J. 1997a. Positional faithfulness, positional neutralization and Shona vowel harmony. Phonology 14. 1–46.

Beckman, J. 1997b. Positional faithfulness. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

Béjar, S. 1998. Segmental inventory and the representation of voicing contrasts. Paper presented at the MOT Phonology Workshop, University of Ottawa.

Boersma, P. 1998. Functional phonology: Formalizing the interaction between articulatory and perceptual drives. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics.

Broe, M. 1993. Specification theory: The treatment of redundancy in generative phonology. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Edinburgh.

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Cairns, C. 1969. Markedness, neutralization and universal redundancy rules. Language 45. 863–885.

Calabrese, A. 1994. A constraint-based theory of phonological inventories. In W. U. Dressler, M. Prinzhorn & J. R. Rennison (eds.), Phonologica 1992: Proceedings of the 7th International Phonology Meeting, 35–54. Torino: Rosenberg & Sellier.

Calabrese, A. 1995. A constraint-based theory of phonological markedness and simplification procedures. Linguistic Inquiry 26. 373–463.

Calabrese, A. 2005. Markedness and economy in a derivational model of phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Casali, R. F. 2003. [ATR] value asymmetries and underlying vowel inventory structure in Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan. Linguistic Typology 7. 307–382.

Causley, T. 1998. Variable markedness and fixed hierarchies. NELS 28. Amherst: GLSA. 69–78.

Causley, T. 1999. Complexity and markedness in Optimality Theory. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.

Cebrian, J. 2002. Phonetic similarity, syllabification, and phonotactic constraints in the acquisition of a second language contrast. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.

Chomsky, N. & M. Halle. 1968. The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.

Clements, G. N. 1985. The geometry of phonological features. Phonology Yearbook 2. 225–252.

Clements, G. N. 1988. Toward a substantive theory of feature specification. In J. Blevins & J. Carter (eds.), Proceedings of NELS 18. 79–93.

Clements, G. N. 2001. Representational economy in constraint-based phonology. In T.A. Hall (ed.), Distinctive feature theory, 71–146. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Clements, G. N. 2005. The role of features in speech sound inventories. [To appear in E. Raimy & C. Cairns (eds.), Contemporary Views on Architecture and Representations in Phonological Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.]

Clements G. N. & E. V. Hume. 1995.The internal organization of speech sounds. In J. A. Goldsmith (ed.), Handbook of phonology. Oxford: Blackwell. 245–306.

Cohn, A. 1993. Nasalization in English: Phonology or phonetics. Phonology 10. 43–81.

Compton, R. in progress. Contrast in the consonant inventories of Inuit, Greenlandic and Yupik. Ms., University of Toronto.

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D’Arcy, A. 2001. Yawelmani reexamined: A contrastive analysis. Ms., University of Toronto.

D’Arcy, A. 2003. Unconditional neutrality: Vowel harmony in a two-place model. Ms., University of Toronto.

de Lacy, P. 2006. Markedness, reduction and preservation in phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dinnsen, D. A. 1992. Variation in developing and fully developed phonetic inventories. In C. Ferguson, L. Menn & C. Stoel-Gammon (eds.), Phonological development: Models, research, implications. Timonium, MD: York Press. 191–210.

Dinnsen, D. A. 1996. Context sensitive underspecification and the acquisition of phonetic contrasts. Journal of Child Language 23. 31–55.

Dinnsen, D. A., S. B. Chin, M. Elbert & T. W. Powell. 1990. Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 33. 28–37.

Dresher, B. E. 2002. Determining contrastiveness: A missing chapter in the history of phonology. In S. Burelle & S. Somesfalean (eds.), Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Canadian Linguistic Association, 82–93. Département de linguistique et de didactiques des langues, Université due Québec à Montréal, 2002.

Dresher, B. E. 2003a. Contrast and asymmetries in inventories. In A.-M. di Sciullo (ed.), Asymmetry in grammar, Volume 2: Morphology, phonology, acquisition, 239–257. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Dresher, B. E. 2003b. The contrastive hierarchy in phonology. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics (Special Issue on Contrast in Phonology), 20. 47–62.

Dresher, B. E. 2004. On the acquisition of phonological contrasts. In J. van Kampen & S. Baauw (eds.), Proceedings of GALA 2003, Volume 1 (LOT Occasional Series 3), 27–46. LOT, Utrecht.

Dresher, B. E. forthcoming. The contrastive hierarchy in phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dresher, B. E. & H. van der Hulst. 1998. Head-dependent asymmetries in phonology: Complexity and visibility. Phonology 15. 317–352.

Dresher, B. E., G. L. Piggott & K. Rice. 1994. Contrast in phonology: Overview. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 13.1. iii–xvii.

Dresher, B.E. & K. Rice. 1994. Complexity in phonological representations. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 12. i–iv.

Dresher, B. E. &  X. Zhang. 2005. Contrast and phonological  activity in Manchu vowel systems. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique 50, 45–82.

Dyck, C. 1995. Constraining the phonology-phonetics interface, with exemplification from Spanish and Italian dialects. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.

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Fikkert, P. 1994. On the Acquisition of Prosodic Structure. (HIL dissertations 6). Dordrecht: IGC Printing.

Flemming, E. 2001. Scalar and categorical phenomena in a unified model of phonetics and phonology. Phonology 18. 7–44.

Flemming, E. 2002. Auditory representations in phonology. New York, London: Routledge.

Frigeni, C. 2002. Metaphony in Campidanian Sardinian: A domain-based analysis. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 20. 63–91.

Frigeni, C. in progress. Representations and domains in the phonology of Sardinian. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Toronto.

Frisch, S. 1996.  Similarity and frequency in phonology. Ph. D. dissertation, Northwestern University.

Frisch, S., J. Pierrehumbert & M. Broe 2004. Similarity avoidance and the OCP. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 22. 179–228.

Ghini, M. 2001a. Asymmetries in the phonology of Miogliola. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ghini, M. 2001b. Place of articulation first. In T.A. Hall (ed.), Distinctive feature theory. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 147–176.

Hale, M. & C. Reiss. 2000. Substance abuse and disfunctionalism: Current trends in phonology. Linguistic Inquiry 31. 157–169.

Hale, M. & C. Reiss. 2001. Phonological theory without substance. In N. Burton-Roberts, P. Carr, & G. Docherty (eds.), Phonological knowledge: Conceptual and empirical foundations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 161–184.

Hall, D. C. 1998. Contrastive specification for voicing in Czech. Paper presented at the Montreal-Ottawa-Toronto Phonology Workshop, University of Ottawa.

Hall, D. C. 1999. On the geometry of auditory space. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 17. 134–157.

Hall, D. C. 2002. Prophylactic features and implicit contrast. Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Contrast in Phonology, University of Toronto.

Hall, D. C. 2007. The role and representation of contrast in phonological theory. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.

Halle, M. 1959. The sound pattern of Russian. The Hague: Mouton.

Halle, M., B. Vaux, & A. Wolfe. 2000. On feature spreading and the representation of place of articulation. Linguistic Inquiry 31. 387–444.

Haspelmath, M. 2006. Against markedness (and what to replace it with). Journal of Linguistics 42. 25–70.

Hayes, B., R. Kirchner & D. Steriade (eds.). 2004. Phonetically-based phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Herd, J. 2005. Loanword adaptation and the evaluation of similarity. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 24. 65–116.

Hirayama, M. 2002. Contrast in Japanese vowels. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Linguistic Association.

Hirayama, M. in progress. Accent in Japanese. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.

Hulst, H.G. van der. 1994. Radical CV phonology: The locational gesture. UCL Working Papers in Linguistics 6. 439–477.

Hulst, H.G. van der. 1995. Radical CV phonology: The categorial gesture. In J. Durand & F. Katamba (eds.), Frontiers of phonology: Atoms, structures, derivations. London: Longman. 80–116.

Hulst, H. G. van der. 1996. Radical CV Phonology: The segment-syllable connection. In J. Durand & B. Laks (eds.), Current trends in phonology: Models and methods. 333–361. Salford: ESRI.

Hume, E. 2003. Language specific markedness: The case of place of articulation . Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology. 9. 295–310.

Hume, E. & G. Tserdanelis. 2002. Labial unmarkedness in Sri Lankan Portuguese Creole. Phonology 19. 441–458.

Hyman, L. M. 2001. Vowel harmony in Gunu. Studies in African Linguistics 30. 146–170.

Hyman, L. M. 2002. On the limits of phonetic determinism in phonology: *NC revisited. In E. Hume & K. Johnson (eds.), The role of perception in phonology. Academic Press.

Hyman, L. M. 2003. ‘Abstract’ vowel harmony in Ka$lç$N: A system-driven account. In P. Sauzet & A. Zribi-Hertz (eds.), Typologie des langues d’Afrique et universaux de la grammaire, 85–112. Paris: l’Harmattan.

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Ingram, D. 1988. Jakobson revisited: Some evidence from the acquisition of Polish phonology. Lingua 75. 55–82.

Ingram, D. 1989. First language acquisition: Method, description, and explanation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jakobson, R. 1941/68. Child language, aphasia, and phonological universals. The Hague: Mouton (1968). Translation by A.R. Keiler of Kindersprache, Aphasie, und allgemeine Lautgesetze. Uppsala: Uppsala Universitets Arsskrift (1941).

Jakobson, R., G. Fant & M. Halle. 1952. Preliminaries to Speech AnalysisCambridge, MA: MIT Press.   

Jakobson, R. & M. Halle. 1956. Fundamentals of language. The Hague: Mouton & Co.

Jarmasz, L. 2007. Polish coronals and high front vowels. Ms., University of Toronto.

Jongstra, W. 2002. The perception and production of word-initial consonant clusters by Dutch L1 learners. Paper presented at the Second International Conference on Contrast in Phonology, University of Toronto.

Kaye, J., J. Lowenstamm & J.-R. Vergnaud. 1985. The internal structure of phonological elements: A theory of charm and government. Phonology Yearbook 2. 305–328.

Kaye, J., J. Lowenstamm & J.-R. Vergnaud. 1990. Constituent structure and government in phonology. Phonology 7. 193–231.

Kean, M.-L. 1980. The theory of markedness in generative grammar. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT. Reproduced by the Indiana University Linguistics Club, Bloomington, Indiana.

Keating, P. 1988. Underspecification in phonetics. Phonology 5. 275–292.

Kingston, J. & R. Diehl. 1994. Phonetic knowledge. Language 70. 419–453.

Kiparsky, P. 1982. From Cyclic to Lexical Phonology. In H. van der Hulst & N. Smith (eds.), The structure of phonological representations (Part I), 131–176. Foris: Dordrecht.

Kiparsky, P. 1985. Some consequences of Lexical Phonology. Phonology Yearbook 2. 85–138.

Kirchner, R. 1997. Constrastiveness and faithfulness. Phonology 14. 83–111.

Kirchner, R. 1998. An effort-based approach to consonant lenition. Ph.D. dissertation, UCLA.

Kochetov, A. 2002. Production, perception, and emergent phonotactic patterns: A case of contrastive palatalization. New York, London: Routledge.

Lahiri, A. & H. Reetz. 2002. Underspecified recognition. In C. Gussenhoven, N. Werner & T. Rietveld (eds.), Labphon 7, 637–676. Berlin: Mouton.

Levelt, C. C. 1989. An essay on child phonology. M.A. thesis, Leiden University.

Liljencrants, J. & B. Lindblom. 1972. Numerical simulation of vowel systems: The role of perceptual contrast. Language 48. 839–862.

Lombardi, L. 2002. Coronal epenthesis and markedness. Phonology. 19. 219–251.

Lubowicz, A. 2003. Contrast Preservation in Phonological Mappings. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. GLSA Publishing. [ROA-554.]

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Mackenzie, S. 2002. Contrast, inventories, and vowel harmony in OT. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Linguistic Association.

Mackenzie, S. 2005. Similarity and contrast in consonant harmony systems. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 24. 169–182.

Mackenzie, S. & B. E. Dresher. 2004. Contrast and phonological activity in the Nez Perce vowel system. In P. M. Nowak, C. Yoquelet, & D. Mortensen (eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 14–17, 2003. 283–294. Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley, California.

McCarthy, J.J. 2002. A thematic guide to Optimality Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McCarthy, J.J. & A. Prince. 1993. Prosodic Morphology I: Constraint interaction and satisfaction. Ms., University of Massachusetts, Amherst & Rutgers University.

McCarthy, J.J. & A. Taub. 1992. Review of Paradis & Prunet. Phonology 9. 363–370.

Mercado, R. 2002. Contrastive theory and Québécois French oral vowels. Paper presented at the MOT Phonology Workshop, McGill University.

Mohanan, K.P. 1991. On the bases of Radical Underspecification. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 9. 285–325.

Mohanan, K.P. 1993. Fields of attraction in phonology. In J. Goldsmith (ed.), The last phonological rule. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 61–116.

Morén, B. 2003. The Parallel Structures Model of feature geometry. In J. Brugman and A. Riehl, (eds.). Working Papers of the Cornell Phonetics Laboratory, vol. 15, 194–270. Ithaca, New York.

Morén, B. 2006. Consonant-vowel interactions in Serbian: Features, representations and constraint interactions. Lingua 116. 1198–1244.

Moulton, K. 2003. Deep allophones in the Old English laryngeal system. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 20. 157–173.

Nevins, A. I. 2004. Conditions on (dis)harmony. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.

Padgett, J. 2003a. Contrast and post-velar fronting in Russian. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 21.1. 39–87.

Padgett, J. 2003b. The emergence of contrastive palatalization in Russian. In E. Holt (ed.), Optimality Theory and language change, Kluwer Academic Press. 307–335.

Pham, H. 1997. The coronal-velar relationship in Vietnamese dialects. MA thesis, University of Toronto.

Pham, H. 1998. Quan he giua am dau luoi va am mac trong cac tieng dia phuong Vietnam : Dan luan [Introduction to the coronal-velar relationship in Vietnamese dialects]. Giup Ich 2.8.

Pham, H. 2003. Vietnamese tone. New York: Routledge.

Pierrehumbert, J., M. E. Beckman & D. R. Ladd. 2000. Conceptual foundations of phonology as a laboratory science. In N. Burton-Roberts, P. Carr & G. Docherty (eds.), Phonological knowledge: conceptual and empirical issues, 273–303. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Prince, A. & P. Smolensky. 2004. Optimality Theory: Constraint interaction in generative grammar. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Pulleyblank, D. 1986. Tone in Lexical  Phonology. Dordrecht: D. Reidel.

Pye, C., D. Ingram & H. List. 1987. A comparison of initial consonant acquisition in English and Quiche. In K. E. Nelson & A. van Kleeck (eds.), Children's language, Volume 6. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. 175–90.

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Radisic, M. 2007. Velar /g/ in Serbian – stop or fricative: A contrastive account. Ms., University of Toronto.

Rice, K. 1996a. Default variability: The coronal-velar relationship. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 14. 493–543.

Rice, K. 1996b. Aspects of variability in child language acquisition. In B. Bernhardt, J. Gilbert, & D. Ingram (eds.), Proceedings of the UBC International Conference on Phonological Acquisition. Somerville, Mass.: Cascadilla Press.

Rice, K. 1996c. Phonological variability in language acquisition: A representational account. In E. Clark (ed.), Proceedings of the Child Language Research Forum. Stanford: CSLI. 7–17.

Rice, K. 1999. How phonetic is phonology? Evidence from tones in Athapaskan languages. Talk presented at the Conference on Distinctive Feature Theory, ZAS, Berlin, October 1999.

Rice, K. 2002. Vowel place contrasts. In M. Amberber & P. Collins (eds.), Language universals and variation. Westport, Connecticut; London: Praeger. 239–270.

Rice, K. 2003. 2003. Featural markedness in phonology: variation. In L. Cheng & R. Sybesma (eds.), The 2nd SOTA Book. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 387–427.

Rice, K. 2005. Sequential voicing, postnasal voicing, and Lyman’s Law revisited. In J. van de Weijer, K. Nanjo & T. Nishihara (eds.), Voicing in Japanese. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 25–45.

Rice, K. forthcoming. Featural markedness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rice, K. & P. Avery. 1995. Variability in a deterministic model of language acquisition: A theory of segmental elaboration. In J. Archibald (ed.), Phonological Acquisition and Phonological Theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 23–42.

Rice, K. & S. Hargus. 2005. Athabaskan prosody. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Rohany Rahbar, E. 2006. Vowel height in Persian. Ph.D. Ms., University of Toronto.

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Sapir, E. 1925. Sound patterns in language. Language 1. 37–51.

Saussure, F. de. 1916. Cours de linguistique générale. Paris: Payot.

Smith, E. 2006. Harmony and the vowel inventory of Sumerian. Ms., University of Toronto.

Smolensky, P. 1995. Harmony, markedness, and phonological activity. Rutgers Optimality Archive ROA-87-0000.

Steriade, D. 1987. Redundant values. CLS 23.2. 339–362.

Steriade, D. 1995. Underspecification and markedness. In J. Goldsmith (ed.), Handbook of Phonology. Oxford: Blackwell. 114–174.

Steriade, D. 1997. Phonetics in phonology: The case of laryngeal neutralization. Ms., UCLA.

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Stevens, K. N., S. J. Keyser & H. Kawasaki. 1986. Toward a phonetic and phonological theory of redundant features. In J. Perkell & D. Klatt (eds.), Symposium on invariance and variability of speech processes. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum. 432–469.

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TWPL. 2003. Special issue on contrast in phonology. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 20. Department of Linguistics, University of Toronto.

TWPL. 2005. Special issue on similarity in phonology. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 24. Department of Linguistics, University of Toronto.

TWPL. 2006. Special issue on Japanese phonology and morphology. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 26. Department of Linguistics, University of Toronto.

Vilks, B. 2002. The contrast hierarchy in the Latvian consonant inventory. Paper presented at the MOT Phonology Workshop, McGill University. Poster session, the Second International Conference on Contrast in Phonology, University of Toronto.

Waugh, L. 1979. Remarks on markedness. In D. Dinnsen (ed.), Current approaches to phonological theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 310–315.

Wu, Y. 1994. Mandarin segmental phonology. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.

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Zhou, H. 1999. Vowel systems in Mandarin Chinese languages. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto.

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