Early Modern Grammar exercises from Millward: thematic key
Personal pronoun (Crystal 210)
§ in PDE the neuter possessive is its
o Gunpowder that has lost its strength ( 7.9.8)
§ possessive my, her, etc: used as a determiner / adjective
o my eyes... (7.9.4)
§ possessive mine, hers, etc.: used as a pronoun, on its own
o That book is mine.
§ I, she, etc.: used as subject / before the verb
o I am the son of the King of Naples. ( 7.9.4)
Reflexive pronoun (Crystal 210)
§ used when the direct or indirect object in a sentence refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the sentence
o We must present ourselves to him. ( 7.9.15)
§ in PDE, formed by adding –self/-selves to the pronoun
§ verbs can change with respect to this
o I endeavoured
to prove ... (7.11.1)
o for which I now repent
§ gives additional emphasis to/draws attention to a noun phrase
o I myself cooked the dinner.
o We spoke to the president herself.
§ formed by adding –self/-selves to the pronoun
Transitive verbs take a direct object (Crystal 212)
§ He kissed me on the nose.
§ Verbs can change with respect to this
o He whispered me in the Ear. (7.9.11)
Imperative verbs (Crystal 219)
§ in PDE don’t have subject expressed ( 7.9.3)
thou by my bed!
Present tense indicative
§ primary verbs have –s in the present tense with a 3rd person singular subject
o praise consists in interlacing pleasure with profit (7.11.2)
o until the quaking prologue has ... got color into his cheeks (7.11.9)
The inflected subjunctive is uncommon in PDE, which uses the indicative or modal auxiliaries (7.11.5, 14)
§ He that can tell to ten, if he recites them out of order, will lose himself...
§ It is dangerous for the feeble brain of man to wade far into the doings of the Most High
§ It would be dangerous ...
The past participle of regular verbs
o takes –ed (7.11.10)
o Wadley in Berkshire is situated in a vale.
The auxiliary DO in PDE
§ is no longer used for the simple present tense (7.11.1)
o according as they
excel in ... understanding
§ is no longer used for the simple past tense (7.11.7,8)
o The sheeted dead
squeak and gibber squeaked and gibbered in the Roman streets.
did had the
English nation beheld so much black worn as there was at her funeral.
§ is used for negation
o Do not present yourself on the stage (7.11.9)
o The bell that rings to a sermon does not call upon the preacher only (7.11.11)
Modal auxiliaries (can, will, etc.)
o require a following infinitive
o They will continue on in sinne... (7.11.13)
The progressive aspect
§ is constructed with BE and the –ING form
§ is used to express an event in progress at a given time
o Thy horse is standing behind the hedge. (7.11.6)
The perfective aspect (Crystal 225)
§ is constructed with HAVE and the past participle
o The spoil of the church had now become the only resource of all their operations (7.11.18)
§ PDE uses the perfective with since:
o You haven’t seen her since she was deform’d (7.11.4)
§ the past perfect expresses ‘anterior time’ in an earlier time frame (7.11.17)
o There was but one small objection ... that she had been married three months before to Mr Shrimp.
PDE only employs used to ‘was accustomed to’ in the past tense
o I use in my thoughts to compare it to something -> (7.11.12)
o I am accustomed to compare it to something
o I compare it to something...
o and it’s followed by a verbal noun, not an infinitive
o I am so used to considering myself as Creditor and Debtor...