Early Modern Grammar exercises from Millward: thematic key


Personal pronoun (Crystal 210)

§       in PDE the neuter possessive is its

o      Gunpowder that has lost its strength ( 7.9.8)

§       possessive my, her, etc: used as a determiner / adjective

o      my eyes... (7.9.4)

§       possessive mine, hers, etc.: used as a pronoun, on its own

o      That book is mine.

§       I, she, etc.: used as subject / before the verb

o      I am the son of the King of Naples. ( 7.9.4)


Reflexive pronoun (Crystal 210)

§       used when the direct or indirect object in a sentence refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the sentence

o      We must present ourselves to him. ( 7.9.15)

§       in PDE, formed by adding –self/-selves to the pronoun

§       verbs can change with respect to this

o      I endeavoured myself to prove ... (7.11.1)

o      for which I now repent me (7.11.15)


Emphatic pronoun

§       gives additional emphasis to/draws attention to a noun phrase

o      I myself cooked the dinner.

o      We spoke to the president herself.

§       formed by adding –self/-selves to the pronoun


Transitive verbs take a direct object (Crystal 212)

§       He kissed me on the nose.

§       Verbs can change with respect to this

o      He whispered me in the Ear. (7.9.11)


Imperative verbs (Crystal 219)

§       in PDE don’t have subject expressed ( 7.9.3)

o      Sit thou by my bed!

Present tense indicative

§       primary verbs have –s in the present tense with a 3rd person singular subject

o      praise consists in interlacing pleasure with profit (7.11.2)

o      until the quaking prologue has ... got color into his cheeks (7.11.9)


The inflected subjunctive is uncommon in PDE, which uses the indicative or modal auxiliaries (7.11.5, 14)

§       He that can tell to ten, if he recites them out of order, will lose himself...

§       It is dangerous for the feeble brain of man to wade far into the doings of the Most High

§       It would be dangerous ...


The past participle of regular verbs

o      takes –ed (7.11.10)

o      Wadley in Berkshire is situated in a vale.


The auxiliary DO in PDE

§       is no longer used for the simple present tense (7.11.1)

o      according as they do excel in ... understanding

§       is no longer used for the simple past tense (7.11.7,8)

o      The sheeted dead did squeak and gibber squeaked and gibbered in the Roman streets.

o      Never did had the English nation beheld so much black worn as there was at her funeral.

§       is used for negation

o      Do not present yourself on the stage (7.11.9)

o      The bell that rings to a sermon does not call upon the preacher only (7.11.11)




Modal auxiliaries (can, will, etc.)

o      require a following infinitive

o      They will continue on in sinne... (7.11.13)


The progressive aspect

§       is constructed with BE  and the –ING form

§       is used to express an event in progress at a given time

o      Thy horse is standing behind the hedge. (7.11.6)


The perfective aspect  (Crystal 225)

§       is constructed with HAVE and the past participle

o      The spoil of the church had now become the only resource of all their operations (7.11.18)

§       PDE uses the perfective with since:

o      You haven’t seen her since she was deform’d (7.11.4)

§       the past perfect expresses ‘anterior time’ in an earlier time frame (7.11.17)

o      There was but one small objection ... that she had been married three months before to Mr Shrimp.


PDE only employs used to ‘was accustomed to’ in the past tense

o      I use in my thoughts to compare it to something -> (7.11.12)

o      I am accustomed to compare it to something

o      I compare it to something...

o      and it’s followed by a verbal noun, not an infinitive

o      I am so used to considering myself as Creditor and Debtor...