Lexis: more exotic loanwords & related issues
What happens when a word
· comes from an unrelated and unfamiliar language
· is borrowed orally
o the case of coffee (with thanks to student Z.P.)
Coffee seems to have come from the Turkish pronunciation kahveh of the Arabic word qahwah, the latter
· denoting the drink, not the plant (bunn ‘berry, bean’)
· originally meaning ‘wine’
· perhaps referring to a place where the coffee plant grows, Kaffa, in Ethiopia
There are different European forms
· Italian caffè, French, Spanish, Portuguese cafē, German kaffee, etc.
· Dutch koffie, earlier German coffee, koffee
And many different spellings
· caoua, cahve, cahu, etc.
· coffa, caffa, capha
· caphe, cauphe, cophie, etc.
o oral borrowing
o from an unrelated and unfamiliar source language
§ OED will subclassify forms with Greek letters: ‘alpha’, ‘beta’, ‘gamma’ etc.
Word comes into English (and all European languages) around 1600
Earliest citations in travel literature, e.g.
· 1598 Linschoten’s Trav. The Turkes holde almost the same manner of drinking of their Chaoua, which they make of a certaine fruit by the Egyptians called Bon or Ban
· 1601 W. Parry Sherley’s Trav. A certain Liquor which they call Coffe … which will soon intoxicate the brain.
· 1603-30 Capt. Smith Trav. & Adv. Their best drinke is Coffa of a graine they call Coava
o definitions and descriptions signal the word’s unfamiliarity
Mid-17th century citations chart its introduction to England
· 1636 Evelyn, Memoirs There came in my time  to the College, one Nathaniel Conopios, out of Greece. He was the first I ever saw drink coffee; which custom came not into England till thirty years after.
Quickly integrated: by the 1660s it’s familiar (“our Cophee”)
· 1664 Evelyn, Sylva Which might yet be drank daily as our Cophee is
· 1665 G. Harvey, Advice agst. Plague Coffee is recommended against the Contagion
Helpful citations under coffee-house: 1650 or before?
1615 G. SANDYS Trav. I. 66 Coffa-houses [in Constantinople]..There sit they chatting most of the day, and sippe of a drinke called Coffa.
1656 BLOUNT Glossogr., Cauphe-house, a Tavern or Inn where they sel Cauphe.
1664 PEPYS Diary 24 Nov., To a coffee-house, to drink jocolatte.
a1672 WOOD Life (1848) 48 This yeare  Jacob a Jew opened a coffey house at the Angel in the parish of S. Peter in the east, Oxon.
And by the next century it’s a familiar point of reference
· 1702 W.J. Bruyn’s Voy. Levant. The most usual Liquor … Kahue, which we call Coffee
o unaware that the words are related?
· compounds: coffee berries, coffee plantation
· compounds for coffee paraphernalia: coffee dish, coffee mill (C17th), coffee cup (C18th)
· metonym: coffee ‘light meal at which coffee is taken’ (c18th) (cf tea)