Types of variation across “new Englishes”



C.M. Millward, A bography of the English language, 2nd ed (Thomson, 1996).

J. Jenkins, World Englishes: a resource book for students (London and NY: Routledge, 2003).


Main levels on which new Englishes differ from those of the “inner circle”


Some shared characteristics result from “interference” of








Discourse style


When a regional variety has developed, as we’ve seen, the continuum from the “acrolect” to the “basilect” may reflect

Representative “New English”: Mesolectal Indian English in Ezekiel’s “The Patriot”


Why is English in India?


Where is it used?


Preferred variety (1991 study)






Debates over effect of this representation


End of poem







Discourse style

R. Parthasarathy: “What is your good name, please?”


-another dramatic monologue

-representation of a conversation between a man and his neighbour of fifteen years ago whom he encounters on his way to market

-uneasiness in the rhetoric

-speaker lacks the good education that would have got him a good job and a good and timely marriage

            -failed his matriculation exam: “I am Matric fail”

            -doesn’t have a foreign education: “He is foreign-returned from UK”

-conscious of his English compared to Madrasi: “How I make out? All Madrasis talking English language wonderfully”

-has an inferior job: “Self-employed” vs “You are in service, isn’t it?” and the foreign-returned fellow who “is officer in State Bank”

            -married late: “only last year”

            -and not as well as he might have: “inter-caste”

-and is not well off: “cost of living is going up and up everyday” and he can’t afford sugar (though he shouldn’t be using it because he’s diabetic)


-dramatic monologue dramatizes importance of education and of English