Excerpt from The Strange and Dangerous Voyage of Capt. Thomas Iames, 1633

        The 17. my Lieutenant and 5. more, deſired they might
try their fortunes in trauelling about the Iland. But they had
farre worſe lucke then the others, although they endured out
all night, and had wandered very farre in the ſnow (which
was now very deepe) and returned comfortleſſe and miſera-
bly diſabled with the coldneſſe. But what was worſe then all
this, they had loſt one of their company, Iohn Barton, name-
ly our Gunners mate; who being very weary, meerly to ſaue
the going about, had attempted to goe ouer a pond that was
a quarter of a mile over ; where when he was in the very
middeſt, the Ice brake and cloſed vpon him, and we neuer
ſaw him more. Conſidering theſe diſaſters, I reſolued to fiſh
no more with a golden hooke: for feare, I weakned my
ſelfe more with one hunting, then 20. ſuch-deare Deeres
could doe me good. Being now aſſured, that there was no
Savages vpon the Iland, nor yet about vs on the other Ilands:
no nor on the maine neither, as farre as we could diſcouer,
(which we further proued by making of fires) and that the
cold ſeaſon was now in that extremity, that they could not
come to vs,if there were any : we comforted and refreſhed
ourſelues , by ſleeping the more ſecurely. We changed our
Iland garriſon, euery weeke ; and for other refreſhing we
were like to haue none till the Spring.
        From this 10. to the 29. it did (by interims) ſnow and
blow ſo hard , that the boate could hardly aduenture aſhoare,
and but ſeldome land, vnleſſe the men did wade in the thicke
congealed water, carrying one another. We did ſenſibly per-
ceiue withall, how wee did daily ſinke into more miſeries.
The land was all deepe couered with ſnow ; the cold did
multiply ; and the thicke ſnow water did increaſe: and what
would become of vs, our moſt mercifull God and preſeruer
knew onely.
        The 29. I obſerued an Eclipſe of the Moone,with what care
poſſibly I could both in the tryall of the exactneſſe of our
inſtruments, as alſo in the obſeruation: I referre you to the
obſeruation in the latter end of this Relation : where it is at
large deſcribed. This moneth of October ended with ſnow
and bitter cold weather.
        The firſt of November I caſt vp accounts with the Stew-
ard concerning our victuall: the third part of our time being
this day out. I found him an honeſt man : for he gaue me
an account euery weeke what was ſpent ; and what was ſtill
in the hold remaining vnder his hand: I would take no ex-
cuſe of leakage or other waſte; vnleſſe he did daily ſhow it
me. Euery month, I made a new ſuruey; and euery ſixe
moneths, put what we had ſpared, by it ſelfe : which now
was at leaſt a moneths prouiſion of Bread; and a fortnights of
Peaſe and Fiſh, &c.
        The 3. day the boate indeauoured to get aſhoare;but could
not ſet thorow the thicke congealed water.
        The 4. they found a place to get aſhoare; and ſo once in
2. or 3. dayes, till the 9. bringing Beere to our men aſhoare
in a barrell, which would freeze firmely in the houſe in one
night. Other prouiſion they had ſtore. The Ice Beere being
thaw'd in a kettell, was not good: and they did breake the
Ice of the pondes of water , to come by water to drinke.
This pond-water had a moſt lothſome ſmell with it: ſo that
doubting leſt it might be infectious, I cauſed a Well to be
ſunke neere the houſe. There we had very good water:which
did taſte (as we flattered our ſelues with it) euen like
        The 10. (hauing ſtore of boordes for ſuch a purpoſe) I put
the Carpenter to worke , to make vs a little boate which we
might carry (if occaſion were) ouer the Ice and make vſe of
her, where there was water. At noone I tooke the Latitude
of this Iland, by 2. Quadrants: which I found to be 52.
00. I vrged the men to make traps to catch Foxes : for we
did daily ſee many. Some of them were pied, blacke and
white : whereby I gathered that there was ſome blacke
Foxes ; whoſe skinnes, I told them, were of a great value:
and I promiſed, that whoſoeuer could take one of them,
ſhould haue the skinne for his reward : Hereupon, they made
diuers traps: and waded in the ſnow (which was very deepe)
to place them in the woods.
        The 12. our houſe tooke a fire , but we ſoone quenched
it: We were faine to keepe an extraordinary fire, night and
day : and this accident, made me order a watch to looke to
it continually: ſeeing, that if our houſe and clothing ſhould
be burnt, that all we were but in a woefull condition. I lay
aſhoare, till the 17. all which time, our miſeries did increaſe.
It did ſnow and freeze moſt extremely. At which time, we
looking from the ſhoare towards the Ship, ſhe did looke
like a piece of Ice, in the faſhion of a Ship : or a Ship re-
ſembling a piece of Ice. The ſnow was all frozen about her;
and all her fore-part firme Ice : and ſo was ſhe on both ſides
alſo. Our Cables froze in the hawſe, wonderfull to behold.
I got me aboord : where the long nights I ſpent, with tor-
menting cogitations : and in the day time, I could not ſee
any hope of ſauing the Ship. This I was aſſured of, that it
was moſt impoſſible to endure theſe extremities long. Eue-
ry day the men muſt beate the Ice off the Cables : while
ſome within boord ; with the Carpenters long Calking
Iron, did digge the Ice out of the hawſes : in which worke,
the water would freeze on their clothes and hands,
and would ſo benumme them, that they could hardly get into
the Ship, without being heau'd in with a rope.
        The 19. our Gunner (who as you may remember, had his
legge cut off) did languiſh vnrecouerably : and now grew
very weake: deſiring, that for the little time he had to liue,
hee might drinke Sacke altogether, which I ordered hee
ſhould doe.
        The 22. in the morning he dyed. An honeſt and a ſtrong-
hearted man. Hee had a cloſe-boorded Cabbin in the Gun-
roome; which was very cloſe indeed : and as many clothes
on him, as was conuenient (for we wanted no clothes:) and
a panne with coales, a fire continually in his Cabbin. For all
which warmth, his playſter would freeze at his wound, and
his bottle of Sacke at his head. We committed him at a good
diſtance from the Ship vnto the Sea.
        The three and twentieth, the Ice did increaſe extraordina-
rily : and the ſnow lay on the water in flakes, as it did fall,
much Ice withall droue by vs : yet nothing hard all this
while. In the euening after the watch was ſet, a great piece
came athwart our hawſe; and foure more followed after him:
the leaſt of them a quarter of a mile broad : which in the
darke did very much aſtoniſh vs, thinking it would haue car-
ried vs out of the Harbour, vpon the ſhoalds Eaſter point,
which was full of rocks. It was newly congealed, a matter
of two inches thicke : and wee broke thorow it, the Cable
and Anker induring an incredible ſtreſſe, ſometimes ſtopping
the whole Ice. We ſhot off three Muskets,ſignifying to our
men aſhoare, that we were in diſtreſſe : who anſwered vs a-
gaine,but could not helpe vs. By ten a clocke, it was all paſt;
neuertheleſſe wee watched carefully : and the weather was
warmer then wee had felt it any time this moneth. In the
morning at breake of day, I ſent for our men aboord, who
made vp the houſe, and arriued by 10. being driuen by the
way, to wade thorow the congealed water ; ſo that they re-
couered to the Boate, with difficultie. There droue by the
Ship many pieces of Ice , though not ſo large as the former,
yet much thicker : One piece came foule of the Cable, and
made the Ship driue.