INTRODUCTION

SCOPE OF CONTRIBUTION


This contribution is a selection of works from the BAPTISTERIA SACRA An Iconographic Index of Baptismal Fonts to the Billedbase for nordisk middelalder at the University of Copenhagen. 

We are contributing a total of 97 font records with close to 600 images mounted for scholarly access.  The stone baptismal fonts are dated to the 12th and 13th centuries.  Most of these works are still in use and can be found in their original churches in Denmark, Sweden and Germany.

GOTLAND WORKSHOPS

The Swedish island of Gotland is situated in the Baltic Sea just east of the mainland. From the Viking period through the Middle Ages, the island was an important trading centre in the north. Today, over 90 medieval churches testify to its once prosperous and affluent past.

The abundance of Burgsvik sandstone in the south and of limestone in the northern region of the island of Gotland facilitated and resulted in a medieval industry of stone carving that included baptismal fonts. The fonts were carved and exported to surrounding regions in the Baltic area from the 12th to the 14th centuries.  The first phase of the industry produced elaborately carved fonts with figures and biblical scenes. Fonts from the second phase were non-figural: plain or decorated with blind arcades, ribs and abstract bands around the bowl. Johnny Roosval called them the "musselcuppors" and Oscar Reutersvärd referred to them as the "paradise" fonts because of their often shell shaped upper basins.

The selected fonts contributed to the Billedbase for nordisk middelalder project are from the first phase of Gotland's font industry and were carved by a group of medieval workshops known as the "Gotland Masters": Calcarius, Hegwald, Sighraf, Majestatis, Byzantios and Semi-Byzantios. The 97 fonts included in this corpus are ornately carved with scenes from the Old and New Testaments, the Apocrypha, hagiography and regional legends. These works represent a unique and rare contribution to the general practise of carving medieval baptismal fonts in the 12th and 13th centuries. Nowhere else in western Europe is there such a concentration of richly carved Romanesque fonts in such a reduced geographical area.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The following bibliography is only a selection of the large body of literature available on the Gotland workshops.

Eriksson, Torkel. "Kristi forsta dop: Nordiska Transformationer av ett Byzantinskt Delmotiv" Kristusfremstillinger: Foredrag holdt ved det 5 Nordiske Symposium for Ikonografiske Studier på Fuglsang 29 Aug. – 3 Sept. 1976. ed. Ulla Haastrup. Copenhagen: G.E.C. Gad, 1980. 67-90.

Eriksson, Torkel."Sexdagarsverket och Syndafallet på en gotlandsk dopfunt från 1100-talet" eds. Patrik Teutersward and Marian Ullen. Genesis Profeta: Nordiska Studier i Gammaltestamentlig Ikonografi. Series: Acta universitatis Stockholmiensis, 33. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1980. 41-50.

Fåhræus, F. Dopfuntarna, deras tillbehör och placering på Gotland under medeltiden: En inventering. Diss. Stockholm, 1974.

Franck, B. "De to Hængte" ICO (Iconographiske Post) (Stockholm) no. 3 (1985): 21-24.

Karlsson, Lennart. "De gatfulla dopfuntsfragmenten i Sigtuna" Konsthistorisk tidskrift vol.58 no.4 (1989): 143-150.

Kaspersen, Søren. "Billeder og Liturgi: Dåb og nadver" ICO (Copenhagen) vol. 2 no. 4-5 (1971): 3-22.

Kennerstedt, Lars. "Den gripna handen: en mangtydig gest hos Hegwald" Skandinaviske symposium om romanske stenarbejder. Viborg, 1989. 175-192.

Landen, Annette. "Dopfuntar så in i Norden" Kultur Miljö Vård no. 5 (1993): 40-45.

Landen, Annette. "Gotland centrum för medeltida stenexport" Populär Historia no. 6, (1993): 44-51.

Lillie, L. "Tornen i foden" ICO (Stockholm) no.4 (1983): 26-32.

Ljungman, Ulrika. "Dar ord blev sten" ICO no.1 (1993): 1-20.

Lundberg, Erik. "Problemet Hegvald" Från stenålder till rokoko: Studier tillägnade Otto Rydbeck 25.8. Lund, 1937. 197-231.

Lundberg, Erik. Byggnadskonsten i Norden under medeltiden 1000-1400. Stockholm, 1940. 281-301.

Lundberg, Erik. "Recension av Tuulse, A: Romansk konst i Norden" Fornvännen vol. 2 (1969).

Nordström, Folke. Mediaeval Baptismal Fonts: An Iconographical Study. Umea: Universitet i Umea and Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1984.

Norrelykke, Christen Lynge. "Slangen i kvindens billede" Vendsyssel nu og da. VIII (1984): 24-47.

Reuther, Hans. "Architekturmodelle auf gotlandischen Taufsteindeckeln" Niederdeutsche Beitrage zür Kunstgeschichte. XVIII (1979): 93-102

Roosval, Johnny. Die Steinmeister Gottlands. Stockholm, 1918.

Roosval, Johnny. Dopfuntar i Statens Historiska museum. Stockholm, 1917.

Rydbeck, Monica. Skånes Stenmästare före 1200. Lund, 1936.

Sjögren, D. "Kommentar: Annu en svensk Herkules?" ICO no.1 (1984): 32-35.

Stenström, Tore. Problem Rörande Gotlands Medeltida Dopfuntar. Diss. Umea, 1975.

Svanberg, Jan. "Stenskulpturen" Den Romanska Konsten Lund/Kristianstad: Författarna och Bokförlaget Signum i Lund and Kristiansstads Bokryckeri, 1995.

Svanberg, Jan. "Kampen mellan gott och ont på dopfunten I Hög" ICO no. 1(1980): 16-30.

Trotzig, Aina. "Jesu dop och frestelsen i oknen: en ikonografisk studie med utgangspunkt fron motiven pa dopfunten i Fjelie kyrka i Skåne" ed. Ulla Haastrup, Kristusfremstillinger: foredrag holdt ved det 5.nordiske symposium for ikonografiske studier på fuglsang 29.aug. – 3. sept. 1976. ed. Ulla Haastrup. Copenhagen: G.E.C. Gad, 1980. 311-323.

Trotzig, Aina. "Moses med korsstav" ICO no. 2 (1986): 28-33.

Tuulse, A. Romansk konst i Norden. Stockholm, 1968.

Tynell, Lars Petersson. Skånes medeltida dopfuntar. Stockholm: Cederquists Grafiska Aktiebolag, 1913-1921.

 

 

 

aki97-8.4-1.jpg (18982 bytes)
Adoration of the Magi
Åkirkeby  (Bornholm, Denmark)



AKI9708333.TIF (369944 bytes)
Nativity
Åkirkeby Baptismal Font
(Bornholm, Denmark)

ALS9700424.TIF (496536 bytes)
Annunciation
Alskog (Gotland, Sweden)

 

bar97-0.7-3.jpg (13104 bytes)
Barlingbo (Sweden)

 

SIM9705329.TIF (262816 bytes)
Massacre of the Innocent
Simris (Sweden)

 

!aki97-8.4-3.tif (345378 bytes)
Magi on Horseback
Åkirkeby Baptismal Font
(Bornholm, Denmark)



NOR9702133.TIF (555560 bytes)
Nora (Sweden)


NOR9702201.TIF (464206 bytes)
Celebration of Mass
Nora (Sweden)



FOL9701400.TIF (335448 bytes)

Flight to Egypt
Fole  (Sweden)



FOL9701405.TIF (589982 bytes)
Fole  (Sweden)

TRY9706010.jpg (36740 bytes)
Tryde  (Sweden)

VAL9700710.jpg (29803 bytes)
Vall  (Sweden)

MOL9000019.jpg (36212 bytes)
Molln (Germany)


BRO9701225.jpg (26747 bytes)

Bro (Gotland, Sweden)