UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
ENG 6900Y: Cybertext
Cybertext studies modes of discourse in which computer technology co-acts with cyborgs, whether author, critical reader or analyst, or editor. The compound `cyber-text' (Greek, 'to steer'-'to weave') relates to cybernetics, which studies how the human mind and nervous system on the one hand, and mechanical-computational communication and control systems on the other, make things. Cybertext makers are cyborgs (`cybernetic-organisms'), that is, authors and reader-interpreters who use cybernetic tools to compose and to understand. Self-sufficient artificial intelligences who make and control things, independent of people, are robots or cymacs. Over the past two decades, they also have begun to make cybertexts. This course will introduce you to the theory, applications, and fiction of and by cybertext-making cyborgs and cymacs.
If cyborgs are extended humans, their cybertexts are also, in McLuhan's phrase, "extensions of man." Theoreticians of cyborg literature include McLuhan (1964), Weizenbaum (1976), Turkle (1984), Haraway (1990), Bolter (1991), Postman (1992), Poster (1995), Aarsneth (1999), and Hayles (1999). These critics often focus on questions of identity and morality. Fiction about cyborgs tends to be cyberpunk and postmodernist: Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1964), Gibson's Neuromancer (1984), and Stephenson's Snow Crash (1992) are good examples. Fiction by cyborgs -- man-machine partners -- begins with conversationalists like Eliza and Parry, and computer poets such as Racter. Interactive fiction follows, starting with Storyspace pioneers like Michael Joyce, Stuart Moulthrop, and Shelley Jackson. Cyborg applications to criticism, philology, and textual bibliography have a longer history. Beginning in the 1960s, text analysis (recently corpus linguistics) uses text-retrieval and statistical software to assist criticism. They help document the structure and meaning of texts (e.g., Smith's and Theall's studies of Joyce), the style and memory of authors in texts (Mosteller and Wallace, Milic, Burrows, Foster, and Lancashire), and the language of diachronic and synchronic collectives (Cluett, the ICAME group, Sinclair, and Biber). The second largest cyborg application is textual cyberspaces. Initially hypertexts and lately hypermedias (with image, sound, and film), these e-editions are of two broad kinds: constrained, single-author or subject gardens; and unbounded Web docuverses. Bush, Nelson, and Landow created memex-hypertexts as unconstrained, multidimensional spaces in which everything can be theoretically linked to everything else, whether by authors or by readers. McGann, Crane, Robinson, and many others cultivated Web gardens devoted to the likes of Rossettis, ancient Greek civilization, and Chaucer.
Cymacs replace rather than extend humanity. The theory of AI is voluminous, but Von Neumann (1954), Boden (1977), Moravec (1988), and Kurzweil (1998) are representative. Story-telling by programs has made some progress in the past few decades, as BRUTUS (2000) and Turner (1994) show. Fiction about cymacs includes William Gibson's and Bruce Sterling's The Difference Engine (1991) and Marge Piercy's He, She, and It (1991). Cymac applications in cybertext, dominantly question-answering and machine translation, can be seen in the Web-based Google (1998), Babel Fish (1999), and Ananova (2000). Neural-network computing has achieved results suggestive of the growth of independent intelligences.
To know cybertext well, we must practice it ourselves. We cannot become a cymac, but we can become cyborgs. This course, then, introduces you to some technologies of cybertext. Graeme Kennedy's book on corpus linguistics explains the basics on how to make and apply a corpus. Using TACT (1996) describes how to apply interactive concordances to close readings. Storyspace is an engine for making interactive fictions and hypertexts. Dreamweaver and XMetaL are programs for creating HTML and XML Web pages.
This course will take a chronological perspective on cybertext. Since the 1960s' work of Norbert Weiner, cybernetics hypothesizes that human beings and their complex machines interact so intimately that they become alike. Both self-regulate, for example. When computers emerged fully in World War II as decryption tools, they appeared superficially human, acquiring rudimentary language skills. Once computer languages like Fortran (`for[mula] tran[slation]', 1956) developed in the 1950s, people learned artificial languages to communicate with machines. Artificial intelligence (AI) followed in the 1960s. It focused on machine translation of human languages: this creates automata that convert texts from a natural language, the source, into another natural language, the target, often through an intermediary artificial language. After initial (drastic) failure, machine translation systems like Systran became successful language industries by the late 1980s. Neural-network computing, discovered about that time, demonstrated that computers could learn if they adopted non-chemical procedures that resemble the chemical ones that the human brain uses. This advanced the main goal of cybernetics, to show that human beings and machines are fundamentally alike.
Lectures, seminar papers, discussion, and workshops.
Students need have no special computer expertise, beyond word-wording and some familiarity with the Web, to take this course.
Course authors for discussion will be selected from the following, in this approximate order.
Convenient anthologies of criticism include Cyberspace Textuality: Computer Technology and Literary Theory, ed. Marie-Laure Ryan (Indiana University Press, 1999) and The Literary Text in the Digital Age, ed. Richard J. Finneran (University of Michigan Press, 1996). The first is on short-term loan in the Library.
- cyber-theorists: Vannevar Bush (1945), Norbert Weiner (1948), John Von Neumann (1954), Marshall McLuhan (1964-), Joseph Weizenbaum (1976), and Ted Nelson (1981);
- early cymacs: Parry (Colby, 1975) and Racter (1984);
- early fictional cymacs: Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1962) and William Gibson's Neuromancer (1984);
- cyborg stylistics: Frederick Mosteller and David Wallace (1963), Louis Milic (1964-) and Stanley Fish (1973), John B. Smith (1980), and John Burrows (1987);
- interactive fiction: Michael Joyce's Afternoon (1987) and Shelley Jackson's The Patchwork Girl (1995);
- new prophets: Jay Bolter (1984-), Sherry Turkle (1984-), Terry Winograd and Fernando Flores (1986), Hans Moravec (1988), and George Landow (1992-);
- cyborg editors: Jerome McGann (1993-), Peter Robinson (1996), and David Chesnutt (1999);
- scholar cyborgs: Donald Foster (1989-), Donald Theall (1995-), Espen Aarsneth (1997), Janet Horowitz Murray (1997), and Katherine N. Hayles (1990-).
- recent fictional cymacs: William Gibson and Bruce Sterling's The Difference Engine (1991), Marge Piercy's He, She, and It (1991), Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash (1992), and Richard Power's Galathea 2.2 (1995);
- cymacs: Geoffrey Hinton and Terrence J. Synowski (1999), and BRUTUS (2000).
We will have workshops or how-to sessions on tools for cybertext applications. Two useful books on these are Graeme Kennedy, An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics (Longman, 1998), and Ian Lancashire, John Bradley, Willard McCarty, Russon Wooldridge, and Michael Stairs, Using TACT with Electronic Texts (MLA, 1996). Both are on short-term loan in the Library. Also recommended are Shillingsburg (1996), Robinson (1993), Sinclair (1991), Potter (1989), and Hockey (1985).
Gateways to on-line theory, applications, and literature are many. I recommend the E-literature site, the Google search engine,
Berkeley's Current Cites, Alan Liu's Voice of the Shuttle, the Open Source Initiative, and Postmodern Culture.
Each student will be expected to
Students may have, without special permission, one extension for either the essay or the application -- until May 15, 2001.
- give two seminar reports, one per term, on recommended readings: 15% each. Note that each seminar report should be uploaded to the Eres Web site two days before the class meets.
- write a critical essay on a work, genre, theoretical position, author, etc., treated during the course: 35%. Due date: April 15, 2001.
- make a cybertext application, e.g., a pilot literary corpus or hypertext: 25%. Due date: April 15, 2001.
- regularly contribute to class discussion: 10%.
- Ananova. [Virtual newsreader.] April 19, 2000-. URL: http://www.ananova.com/
- Bringsjord, Selmer, and David Ferruicci. Artificial intelligence and literary creativity: inside the mind of BRUTUS, a storytelling machine. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum, 2000. BF 408 .B773 Robarts
- Condron, Frances. CTI Textual Studies: Guide to Digital Resources for the Humanities. Oxford: Humanities Computing Unit, University of Oxford, 2000. 1996-98 version: URL: http://info.ox.ac.uk/ctitext/resguide/resources/index.html#start
- Fraistat, Neil, Steven E. Jones, and Carl Stahmer, eds. Romantic Circles. University of Maryland, 2000-. URL: http://www.rc.umd.edu/
- Jurafsky, Daniel, and James H. Martin. Speech and Language
Processing: An Introduction to Natural Language Processing,
Computational Linguistics, and Speech Recognition. Upple Saddle River:
Prentice Hall, 2000. See also many Web links at
- Morrison, Alan, Michael Popham, and Karen Wikander. Creating and Documenting Electronic Texts: A Guide to Good Practice. Arts and Humanities Data Service, 2000. URL: http://ota.ahds.ac.uk/documents/creating/
- Pintzuk, Susan, Eric Haeberli, Ans van Kemenade, Willem Koopman, and Frank Beths. The Brooklyn Corpus. I.e., The Brooklyn-Geneva-Amsterdam-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English. University of York, UK, 2000. URL: http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~sp20/corpus.html
- WebCorp. University of Liverpool: Research and Development Unit for English Studies, 2000-. URL: http://www.webcorp.org.uk/webcorp.html
- XHTML 1.0. W3, January 26, 2000-. URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/
- Babel Fish. Alta Vista, 1999-. URL: http://babelfish.altavista.com/translate.dyn
- Bolter, Jay David, and Richard Grusin. Remediation: understanding new media. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1999. P 96 .T42B59 Robarts
- Chesnutt, David R., Susan M. Hockey, and C. M. Sperberg-McQueen. Markup Guidelines for Documentary Editions.
University of South Carolina, Model Editions Partnership, 1999. URL: http://adh.sc.edu/MepGuide.html#PRELIMS.2.7
- Current Cites: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Articles, Books, and Digital Documents on Information Technology. August 1990-. URL: http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/CurrentCites/
- Electronic Literature Organization. 1999-. URL: http://www.eliterature.org/index2.html See its introduction to e-literature.
- Farringdon, Jillian M. Analyzing for Authorship: A Guide to the Cusum Technique. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1999. PN 171 F6F34 Robarts
- Groves, Paul, and Stuart Lee. Virtual Seminars for Teaching Literature. Oxford, 1999. URL: http://info.ox.ac.uk/jtap/ Includes the Wilfred Owen Multimedia Digital Archive.
- Hayles, N. Katherine. How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. Q 335 .H394 1999X Short Term Loan
- Hinton, Geoffrey, and Terrence J. Synowski, eds. Unsupervised learning: foundations of neural computation. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1999. QP 408 .U57 Engineering
- Joyce, Michael. Othermindedness: the emergence of network culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999. PN 3377 .C57J69 Robarts
- Kac, Eduardo. New Media Poetry, Hypertext, and Experimental Literature Bibliography. Leonardo on-line. 1999. URL: http://mitpress.mit.edu/e-journals/Leonardo/isast/spec.projects/newmediapoetry.html. Also Selected Webliography on New Media Poetry. URL: http://www.ekac.org/Webliolinks.html
- Lancashire, Ian. "Probing Shakespeare's Idiolect in Troilus and Cressida I.3.1-29." UTQ 68.3 (1999): 728-67.
- Railton, Stephen. Uncle Tom's Cabin & American Culture. Research Reports, 7th series. Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, 1999. URL: http://www.iath.virginia.edu/utc/
- Ryan, Marie-Laure, ed. Cyberspace Textuality: Computer Technology and Literary Theory. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1999. QA 76.9 .C66R93 Engineering Short Term Loan
- Stephenson, Neal. In the Beginning ... Was the Command Line. New York: Avon, 1999.
- XMetaL. [Toronto:] Softquad, 1999-. URL: http://www.softquad.com/index_main.html
- Biber, Douglas, Susan Conrad, and Randi Reppen. Corpus linguistics: investigating language structure and use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. P 128 C68B53
- Bornstein, G., and T. Tinkle, eds. The Iconic Page in Manuscript, Print, and Digital Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998. PR 21 .I28 Robarts
- Dreamweaver. San Francisco: Macromedia, Dec. 1998-. URL: http://www.macromedia.com/software/dreamweaver/
- EAD: Encoded Archival Description. Library of Congress: Network Development and MARC Standards Office, 1998-. URL: http://lcweb.loc.gov/ead/eadback.html
- Fellbaum, C. WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998. P 325.5 .D38W67 Robarts. URL: www.cogsci.princeton.edu/~wn/
- Google. Mountain View, Calif., 1998-. URL: google.com
- Heim, Michael. Virtual realism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. QA 76 .9 H85H47 Gerstein. See URL: http://www.mheim.com/
- Kennedy, Graeme. An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics. London: Longman, 1998. P 98 .K44 Gerstein Short Term Loan
- Kurzweil, Ray. The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence. Viking Penguin, 1998. Q 335 .K88 Gerstein
- O'Donnell, James Joseph. Avatars of the word: from papyrus to cyberspace. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998. P 96 .T42O36 Robarts
- The Open Source Initiative. 1998-. URL: http://www.opensource.org/
- Smith, Marc, and Peter Kollock, eds., Communities in Cyberspace. London: Routledge, 1998. HQ 1178 .C65 Robarts
- Snyder, Ilana, and others, eds. Page to screen: taking literacy into the electronic era. London: Routledge, 1998. LC 149 .5 P35 Gerstein
- Williams, David. "The Politics of Cyborg Communications: Harold Innis, Marshall McLuhan, and The English Patient." Canadian Literature
156 (Spring 1998): 30-55.
- Aarseth, Espen J. Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1997. P 302.5 .A18 1997X Robarts
- Dickinson Electronic Archives. Ed. Martha Nell Smith, Ellen Louise Hart, and Marta Werner. Research Reports, 5th series. Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, 1997. URL: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/dickinson/
- Dodge, Martin. An Atlas of Cyberspaces. University College, London: Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, 1997-. URL: http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/atlas.html
- Early Canadiana Online. Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions, 1997-. URL: http://www.canadiana.org
- Eaves, Morris, Robert N. Essick, and Joseph Viscomi, eds. The William Blake Archive. Research Reports, 5th series. Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, 13 November 1997 URL: http://www.iath.virginia.edu/blake/
- Gaggi, S. From Text to Hypertext: Decentering the Subject in Fiction, Film, the Visual Arts, and Electronic Media. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997. NX 160 G35 Robarts.
- Murray, Janet Horowitz. Hamlet on the holodeck: the future of narrative in cyberspace. New York: Free Press, 1997. QA 76 .76 I59M87 Gerstein
- Sutherland, Kathryn, ed. Electronic Text: Investigations in Method and Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. PR 21 E44 Robarts.
- Theall, Donald. Joyce's Technopoetics. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997. PR 6019 O9Z828 Robarts
- Price, Kenneth M., and Ed Folsom, eds. The Walt Whitman Hypertext Archive. Research Reports, 5th series. Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, 1997. URL: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/whitman/
- Bailey, Charles W., Jr. Scholarly Electronic Publishing Bibliography. Houston: University of Houston Libraries, 1996-.
- Balsamo, Anne. Technologies of the Gendered Body: Reading Cyborg Women. Durham: Duke University Press, 1996. HQ 1190 .B35 Robarts
- Best, Michael, ed. The Internet Shakespeare Editions. University of Victoria, 1996-. URL: http://web.uvic.ca/shakespeare/
- British Poetry 1780-1910: A Hypertext Archive of Scholarly Editions. Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia, 1996-. URL: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/britpo.html
- Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Wife of Bath's Prologue on CD-ROM. Ed. Peter Robinson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. PR 1868 W6R65 Microfilm.
- Chernaik, Warren, Marilyn Deegan, and Andrew Gibson, eds. Beyond the book: theory, culture, and the politics of cyberspace. Oxford: Office for Humanities Communication, 1996. Z 1033 E43B49 1996
- Cherny, Lynn, and Elizabeth Reba Weise, eds. Wired women: gender and new realities in cyberspace. Seattle, Wash.: Seal Press, 1996. HQ 1180 W57 Robarts
- Eastgate Systems Web site. 1996-. URL: http://www.eastgate.com/Welcome.html
- Finneran, Richard J., ed. The Literary Text in the Digital Age. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. PR 21 .L59 Robarts
- Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed Environments. 1 (Spring 1996-). URL: http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/index.html
- Lancashire, Ian, John Bradley, Willard McCarty, Michael Stairs, and T. R. Wooldridge. Using TACT with Electronic Texts. New York: MLA, 1996. QA 76.9 .T48L36 Trinity College
- Literature Online. Chadwyck-Healey, 1996-. URL: http://lion.chadwyck.com
- Modern English Collection. Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. 1996-. URL: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/modeng/modeng0.browse.html
- Perseus 2.0: Interactive Sources and Studies on Ancient Greece. Ed. Gregory Crane. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. Computer file: DF 217 .P47 Scarborough College
- Shillingsburg, P. L. Scholarly Editing in the Computer Age: Theory and Practice. 3rd edn. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. PN 162 S576 Robarts
- Stubbs, M. Text and Corpus Analysis: Computer-assisted Studies of Language and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell, 1996. P 302 S773 Robarts
- Wilks, Y. A., B. M. Slator, and L. M. Guthie. Electronic Words, Dictionaries, Computers, and Meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996.
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Visible Language 30 (1995): 164-83.
- Digital Libraries: Resources and Projects. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. 1995-. URL: http://www.ifla.org/ll/diglib.htm
- Featherstone, Mike, and Roger Burrows, eds. Cyberspace/cyberbodies/cyberpunk: cultures of technological embodiment. London: Sage, 1995. GN 298 C93 1995 Robarts
- The Internet Public Library. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, March 17, 1995-. URL: http://www.ipl.org/
- Jackson, Shelley. Patchwork Girl, or, A Modern Monster. Watertown, Mass.: Eastgate, 1995.
- Joyce, Michael. Of Two Minds: Hypertext Pedagogy and Poetics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995. PN 56 T37 J69 Trinity College
- Keep, Christopher, Tim McLaughlin, and robin. The Electronic Labyrinth. University of Alberta, 1995. URL: http://web.uvic.ca/~ckeep/elab.html
- LinguaMOO. Dallas: University of Texas, 1995-. URL: http://lingua.utdallas.edu:7000/
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- Making of America. University of Michigan and Cornell University, 1995-. Michigan URL: http://moa.umdl.umich.edu/; Cornell URL: http://moa.cit.cornell.edu/
- Poster, Mark. The second media age. Cambridge, Mass.: Polity Press, 1995. Library P 96 T42 P67 Robarts
- Powers, Richard. Galatea 2.2: A Novel. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1995. PS 3566 O92G35 Robarts
- Tabbi, Joseph, ed. Electronic Book Review. University of Illinois at Chicago, 1995-. URL: http://www.altx.com/eb
- Theall, Donald. Beyond the Word: Reconstructing Sense in the Joyce Era of Technology, Culture, and Communication. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995. P 90 T44 Robarts
- Turkle, Sherry. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. QA 76.9 .C66T87 Gerstein
- Willet, Perry. Victorian Women Writers Project Indiana University, 1995-. URL: http://www.indiana.edu/~letrs/vwwp/
- Birkerts, Sven. The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994. Z 1003 B57 Robarts
- Downing, David, and James Sosnoski, eds. The Geography of Cyberspace. Works and Days 23/24 (1994).
- Galison, Peter. "The Ontology of the Enemy: Norbert Weiner and the Cybernetic Vision." Critical Inquiry 21 (1994): 228-66. AS 30 C75 Robarts
- Holtzrean, S. R. Digital Mantras: the Languages of Abstract and Virtual Worlds. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1994. QA 76 H6234 Gerstein
- Kytö, Merja, Matti Rissanen, and Susan Wright, eds. Corpora across the Centuries. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994. PE 1074.5 .I54 Robarts
- Lancashire, Ian, ed. Representative Poetry On-line. University of Toronto: University of Toronto Library, 1994-. URL: http://www.library.utoronto.ca/utel/rp/intro.html
- Lancashire, Ian, and T. Russon Wooldridge, eds. Early Dictionary Databases. CCH Working Papers 4. University of Toronto: Centre for Computing in the Humanities, 1994. P 327 .E27 Robarts
- Landow, George P., ed. Hyper/Text/Theory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. PN 81 H96 Robarts. See also URL: http://landow.stg.brown.edu/cpace/cspaceov.html
- Lanham, Richard. The Electronic Word: Democracy, Technology, and the Arts (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994. QA 76 .9 C66L363 Gerstein. See Chapter 4 at URL: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/jod/texts/lanham.sample
- Liu, Alan. The Voice of the Shuttle. University of California, Santa Barbara, 1994- URL: http://vos.ucsb.edu/index.html. Its "Cyberculture" page is the best such resource on the Web.
- Netscape Web browser. November 1994-.
- Porush, David. "Hacking the Brainstem: Postmodern Metaphysics and Stephenson's Snow Crash." Configurations 3 (1994): 537-71. Victoria College Library
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- Turner, Scott. The Creative Process: A Computer Model of Storytelling and Creativity. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994. PN 171 .D37T87 Robarts
- Young, Jeffrey R. "Textuality in Cyberspace." May 28, 1994. URL: http://metalab.unc.edu/pub/academic/communications/papers/muds/Textuality-in-Cyberspace
- Bukatman, Scott. Terminal Identity: The Virtual Subject in Postmodern Science Fiction. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993. PS 374 S35 B84 Robarts
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- Heim, Michael. The metaphysics of virtual reality. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. QA 76 .9 H85H45 Gerstein
- Holmes, David. Authorship Attribution. Bristol: University of
the West of England, 1993. See also URL:
- Landow, George P., and Paul Delany, eds. The Digital Word: Text-based Computing in the Humanities. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993. PN 98 E4D54 Robarts
- McGann, Jerome, ed. The Complete Writings and Pictures of Dante Gabriel Rossetti:A Hypermedia Research Archive. Charlotteville: University of Virginia, 1993-. URL: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/rossetti/index.html. See also McGann's "The Rationale of HyperText" at URL: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/public/jjm2f/rationale.html
- Robinson, Peter. The Digitization of Primary Text Sources. Oxford: Office for Humanities Communication, 1993. TA 1632 R62 1993
- Robinson, Peter. The Transcription of Primary Textual Sources Using SGML. Oxford: Office for Humanities Communication, 1994. QA 76 .9 T48 R63
- Wired Magazine. 1993-. URL: http://www.wired.com/wired/current.html
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- Ernst, Josef. "Computer Poetry: An Act of Disinterested Communication."
New Literary History 23 (1992): 451-65. PN 2 N48
- Gibson, William. Agrippa: A Book of the Dead. New York: Kevin Begos, 1992. URL: http://www.astro.utoronto.ca/~reid/htmldocs/agrippa.html
- Hart, Michael, comp. Project Gutenberg. 1971 (online 1992). URL: http://promo.net/pg/
- HTML W3, 1992-. URL: http://www.w3.org/History/19921103-hypertext/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/MarkUp.html
- Landow, George P. Hypertext: The Convergence of Contemporary Literary Theory and Technology. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1992. PN 81 L28 Robarts
- Postman, Neil. Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology. New York: Knopf, 1993. T 14.5 .P667 Trinity College
- Stephenson, Neal. Snow Crash. New York: Bantam, 1992. PS 3569 T3868S65 Robarts
- Benedikt, Michael, ed. Cyberspace: First Steps. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991. QC 173 .59 S65C93 1991 Gerstein
- Bolter, Jay. Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991. Data file: Z 52.4 B65 1990 Law. Book: Z 52 .4 B65 Robarts
- Delany, Paul, and George P. Landow, eds. Hypermedia and Literary Studies. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991. PN 98 E4H97 Robarts
- Gibson, William, and Bruce Sterling. The Difference Engine. New York: Bantam Books, 1991. PS 3557 I2664D54 Robarts
- Gunn, Eileen K. The Difference Dictionary. URL: http://www.sff.net/people/gunn/dd/a-m-tops.htm 1990, 1996.
- Heims, Steve J. The Cybernetics Groups. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991. H 62 .5 U5H45 Robarts
- The Loebner Prize--"The First Turing Test." Dartmouth College, 1991-.
- Lancashire, Ian. The Humanities Computing Yearbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Software and Other Resources. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991. Z 699.5 .H8H85 Robarts
- Moulthrop, Stuart. Victory Garden. Cambridge, Mass.: Eastgate Systems, 1991.
- Nyce, J. M., and P. Kahn, eds. From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind's Machine. Boston: Academic, 1991. QA 76.4 F76 1991
- Piercy, Marge. He, She, and It. Middlemarsh, 1991.
PS 3566 I4H37 Robarts
- Sinclair, John. Corpus Concordance Collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. PE 1074.5 .S56 Robarts
- Wooldridge, T. R. A TACT Exemplar. Toronto: Centre for Humanities Computing, 1991. PN 98 E4 T32 Robarts
- Haraway, Donna. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge, 1990. GN 365 .9 H37 Robarts
- Hayles, Katherine N. Chaos Bound: Orderly Disorder in Contemporary Literature and Science. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990. PN 771 C44 1991 Robarts and other libraries
- Landow, George P. The Dickens Web. Ed. Julie Launhardt and Paul D. Kahn. Providence: Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship, 1990.
- The London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English. Lund: Lund University Press, 1990. PE 1074.5 .L66 Robarts
- Poster, Mark. The Mode of Information: Poststructuralism and Social Context. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. HM 24 P66 Gerstein
- Postmodern Culture. No. 1-. Sept. 1990-. URL: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pmc/contents.all.html
- Barrett, Edward, ed. The Society of text: hypertext, hypermedia, and the social construction of information. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989. QA 76.76 .H94S65 Gerstein
- Foster, Donald W. Elegy by W.S.: A Study in Attribution. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1989. PR 2199 F863F67 Robarts
- Porush, David. "Cybernetic Fiction and Postmodern Science." New Literary History 20 (1989): 373-96. PN 2 N48 Robarts
- Potter, Rosanne G., ed. Literary Computing and Literary Criticism: Theoretical and Practical Essays on Theme and Rhetoric. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989. PR 21 L58 Robarts
- Ziegfeld, Richard. "Interactive Fiction: A New Literary Genre?" New Literary History 20 (1989): 341-72.
- Acker, Kathy. Empire of the Senseless. 1988. [A reworking of Neuromancer.] PS 3551 C44E47 Robarts
- Barrett, Edward, ed. Text, ConText, and Hypertext: Writing with and for the Computer. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988. QA 76 .9 D6T48 Gerstein
- Biber, Douglas. Variation across speech and writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. P 120 V37B54 Robarts
- Moravec, Hans. Mind Children: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988. Q 335 M67 Gerstein
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(c) Ian Lancashire 2000