Dictionary of Utkuhiksalingmiut Postbases

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-řaq / -gaq -ᖬᖅ / -ᒐᖅ

Meaning:

the one Xed, something that is Xed (passive/transitive participle)

Phonological variants:

V+__ řaq ᖬᖅ gaq ᒐᖅ
k → ktaq ᒃᑕᖅ gaq ᒐᖅ
q → qtaq ᖅᑕᖅ gaq ᒐᖅ
t → taq ᑕᖅ
ti → 'řaq ᑊᖬᖅ

Examples:

  1. hanařaq ᓴᓇᖬᖅ
    hana-řaq ᓴᓇ-ᖬᖅ
    work, make-passive participle
    something that has been made
  2. alugaq ᐊᓗᒐᖅ
    aluk-gaq ᐊᓗ-ᒐᖅ
    lick-passive participle
    oatmeal (something that is licked, not chewed)
  3. imigaq ᐃᒥᒐᖅ
    imiq-gaq ᐃᒥ-ᒐᖅ
    drink-passive participle
    juice (something that is drunk by people)
  4. akutaq ᐊᑯᑕᖅ
    akut-taq ᐊᑯ-ᑕᖅ
    mix-passive participle
    a food made of cooked tallow and fish oil blended together and hardened (something that is mixed)
  5. tigukkat ᑎᒍᒃᑲᑦ
    tigu-gaq-t ᑎᒍ-ᒐ-ᑦ
    hold-passive participle-pl
    possessions (things that are owned, held on to)
  6. ahivaqtaksat ᐊᓯᕙᖅᒃᓴᑦ
    ahivaq-taq-ksaq-t ᐊᓯᕙᖅ-ᑕ-ᒃᓴᖅ-ᑦ
    remove-passive participle-potential-pl
    things to be removed (potential removed things)
  7. naahaqtaksaungngittut ᓈᓴᖅᒃᓴᐅᙱᑦᑐᑦ
    naa-haq-taq-ksaq-u-ngngit-tut ᓈ-ᓴᖅ-ᑕ-ᒃᓴ-ᐅ-ᙱᑦ-ᑐᑦ
    add up, be sufficient-try to cause-passive participle-potential-be-not-part.3p
    they are too numerous to be counted
  8. apiriřaksaqaqtunga ᐊᐱᕆᒃᓴᖃᖅᑐᖓ
    apiri-řaq-ksaq-qaq-tunga ᐊᐱᕆ-ᖬ-ᒃᓴ-ᖃᖅ-ᑐᖓ
    ask question-passive participle-potential-have-part.1s
    I've got someone I can ask (literally: I have someone who can potentially be asked)
    cf. apiriřuksaqaqtunga "I have a question to ask"
  9. qauřimařaqaqtunga ᖃᐅᖨᒪᖃᖅᑐᖓ
    qauřima-řaq-qaq-tunga ᖃᐅᖨᒪ-ᖬ-ᖃᖅ-ᑐᖓ
    know-passive participle-have-part.1s
    I know someone (literally: I have a known person)
  10. tautugaqangngimmariktuq ᑕᐅᑐᖃᙱᒻᒪᕆᒃᑐᖅ
    tautuk-gaq-qaq-ngngit-mmarik-tuq ᑕᐅᑐ-ᒐ-ᖃ-ᙱ-ᒻᒪᕆᒃ-ᑐᖅ
    see-passive participle-have-not-really-part.3s
    He can't see at all (literally: he really has nothing he can see)
  11. hanařatka ᓴᓇᖬᑦᑲ
    hana-řaq-tka ᓴᓇ-ᖬ-ᑦᑲ
    make, work-transitive participle-1s.poss.pl
    the things I made (noun); I made them (verb) (literally: my made ones)
  12. tiituqtaqqut ᑏᑐᖅᖅᑯᑦ
    tii-tuq-taq-qut ᑏ-ᑐᖅ-ᑕᖅ-ᖁᑦ
    tea-consume-transitive participle-1p.poss
    the tea we're drinking (literally: the tea being drunk by us)
    cf. tiituqtauřuq "the tea was drunk (by somebody)"
  13. tautuktamnik ᑕᐅᑐᒃᒻᓂᒃ
    tautuk-taq-mnik ᑕᐅᑐᒃ-ᑕ-ᒻᓂᒃ
    see-transitive participle-1s.poss.MIK
    something I'm looking at (literally: my seen thing)
  14. piqattagaanik ᐱᖃᑦᑕᓂᒃ
    pi-qattaq-gaq-anik ᐱ-ᖃᑦᑕ-ᒐ-ᐊᓂᒃ
    do-regularly-transitive participle-3p.poss
    their customs; the things they usually do (literally: the things that are usually done by them)
  15. itqaqtaraluara ᐃᑦᖃᖅᕋᓗᐊᕋ
    itqaq-taq-raluaq-ra ᐃᑦᖃᖅ-ᑕ-ᕋᓗᐊ-ᕋ
    remember-transitive participle-past-1s.poss
    I remembered it
  16. aullaqatigiřahaapta ᐊᐅᓪᓚᖃᑎᒋᓵᑉᑕ
    aullaq-qatigi-řaq-haaq-pta ᐊᐅᓪᓚ-ᖃᑎᒋ-ᖬ-ᓵ-ᑉᑕ
    travel-do together with-transitive participle-recent-1p.poss.relative
    the people we were just recently travelling with
    cf. inuqatigiřara "my companion; I accompanied him"
  17. najuqtavinira ᓇᔪᖅᕕᓂᕋ
    najuq-taq-viniq-ra ᓇᔪᖅ-ᑕ-ᕕᓂ-ᕋ
    occupy, take care of-transitive participle-former-1s.poss
    the one I used to live in (e.g. house)
  18. qupaktatuqarigiagannalugi'miřatka ᖁᐸᒃᑐᖃᕆᒋᐊᓐᓇᓗᒋᑊᒥᖬᑦᑲ
    qupak-taq-tuqaq-ri-giaq-gaq-nnaluk-gi-'mi-řatka ᖁᐸᒃ-ᑕ-ᑐᖃ-ᕆ-ᒋᐊ-ᒐ-ᓐᓇᓗ-ᒋ-ᑊᒥ-ᖬᑦᑲ
    embroider-transitive participle-long time-be in relation-set about-transitive participle-very much-be in relation-again/also-part.1s/3p
    I'm going to be embroidering them for a long time too; my embroidery won't be finished for a long time (literally - and very awkwardly in English: they are also very much my things that will begin to be the things that I embroider for a long time)
    cf. qupaktatka "I embroider them"
  19. iklautigiřaksatka ᐃᒃᓚᐅᑎᒋᒃᓴᑦᑲ
    iklaq-utigi-řaq-ksaq-tka ᐃᒃᓚ-ᐅᑎᒋ-ᖬ-ᒃᓴ-ᑦᑲ
    laugh-because of-transitive participle-potential-1s.poss.pl
    things for me to laugh at
  20. hinigaksatka ᓯᓂᒃᓴᑦᑲ
    hinik-gaq-ksaq-tka ᓯᓂ-ᒐ-ᒃᓴ-ᑦᑲ
    sleep-passive participle-potential-1s.poss.pl
    my nights (my potential times for sleeping)
  21. piřaksaringittami'nik ᒃᓴᕆᖏᑦᒥᑊᓂᒃ
    pi-řaq-ksaq-ri-ngit-taq-mi'nik ᐱ-ᖬ-ᒃᓴ-ᕆ-ᖏᑦ-ᑕ-ᒥᑊᓂᒃ
    do-transitive participle-potential-be in relation-not-transitive participle-3pr.poss.pl
    things they shouldn't do
  22. tiiliu'řaksari'lugit ᑏᓕᐅᑊᒃᓴᕆᑊᓗᒋᑦ
    tii-liuti-řaq-ksaq-ri-'lugit ᑏ-ᓕᐅ-ᖬ-ᒃᓴ-ᕆ-ᑊᓗᒋᑦ
    tea-make for someone-transitive participle-potential-be in relation-fut.appos.any/3p
    I should make tea for them.
    cf. tiiliupsaaqtuksau'luni "I should make tea again (for myself)"
  23. qauřimařa&ugi'ařaa ᖃᐅᖨᒪᖢᒋᑊᐊᖭ
    qauřima-řaq-&uk-gi-'a-řaa ᖃᐅᖨᒪ-ᖬ-ᖢ-ᒋ-ᑊᐊ-ᖭ
    know-transitive participle-uncertainty-be in relation-I think-part.3s/3s
    He probably knows it; I think he knows it.
  24. iqaluktariřaat ᐃᖃᓗᒃᕆᖭᑦ
    iqaluk-t-taq-ri-řaat ᐃᖃᓗᒃ--ᑕ-ᕆ-ᖭᑦ
    fish-catch-transitive participle-be in relation-part.2s/3s (interrogative lengthening)
    Did you catch that fish? (is that the fish that you caught?)

Notes:

Either -řaq/-taq (additive) or -gaq (deleting) is possible after most stems. The -gaq variant forms its plural via consonant doubling (-kkat, as in 5; see Grammar Notes).

When -řaq/-gaq has a possessive ending (as in 11-13), this marks the person who performs the action: i.e., "the things I made" are "my made things".

-řaq/gaq with possessive endings is in fact the same as the usual 2-person (transitive) verb endings (as in 11-12). In this case, the word may be used either as a verb: "I made them" or as a noun: "the things I made". (This is seen most clearly in ex 11).

When there is a specific actor (agent), it is often more appropriate to call this postbase a transitive participle than a passive participle.

Various noun-modifying postbases, such as -galuaq (15), -haaq- (16), -viniq (17), -ksaq (19-20), etc, can be inserted into 2-person verbs by being placed between -řaq/-gaq and the possessive ending, or between -řaq/-gaq and -gi- (as in 18, 21, 22, 23). Cf. the similar insertion of these postbases between -řuq and -u- in 1-person verbs (see -řuq).

See also:


Last updated: 1 September 2011

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