The following works, although not cited, have contributed to my reflection on matters sensory and reproductive. 
Many yield a bon mot. 


Abercrombie, Nicholas, Stephen Hill and Bryan S. Turner. The Dominant Ideology Thesis. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1980.

Abrams, M.H. The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1953.

"The endemic disease of analogical thinking, however, is hardening of the categories."

Ackerman, Diane. A Natural History of the Senses. New York, Random House, 1990; Vintage, 1991.

"Our senses, which feel so personal and impromptu, and seem at times to divorce us from other people, reach far beyond us. They're an extension of the genetic chain that connects us to everyone who has ever lived; they bind us to other people and to animals, across time and country and happenstance."



Bal, Mieke. Reading "Rembrandt" Beyond the Word- Image Opposition. The Northrop Frye Lectures in Literary Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

"The work no longer stands alone; now the viewer must acknowledge that he or she makes it work, and that the surface is no longer still but tells the story of its making. That is what narrativity does to a work of art, be it visual or literary."

Barfield, Owen. Saving the Appearances: a Study of Idolatry. London: Faber & Faber 1957. NY: Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich [1965]. 2nd ed. Middleton, Conn: Wesleyan U.P. 1988.

"I do not perceive any thing with my sense- organs alone, but with a great part of my whole human being. [...] with all sorts of other things like mental habits, memory, imagination, feeling and (to the extent at least that the act of attention involve it) will."

Bateson, Gregory. Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology. Northvale, N.J., London: Jason Aronson, 1972, rpt 1987.

"The royal road to consciousness and objectivity is through language and tools."

Black, Max. Models and Metaphors: Studies in Language and Philosophy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1962.

"Perhaps every science must start with metaphor and end with algebra; and perhaps without metaphor there would never have been an algebra."

Boone, Elizabeth Hill and Walter D. Mignolo, eds. Writing Without Words: Alternative Literacies in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1994.

Bruce, Donald David. De l'intertexutalité à l'interdiscursivité: évolution d'un concept théorique Diss. University of Toronto, 1987.

There is something puzzling about the use Bruce makes of feedback system. He does so in the context of discussing Ricoeur's distinction between reference in oral and written contexts. [Ricoeur, "The Model of the Text: Meaningful action considered as text." John B. Thompson, ed./trans. Hermeneutics and the Social Sciences. Cambridge and Paris: Éditions de la maison des sciences de l'homme/Cambridge University Press, 1981, 1997-221.]
Bruce assigns feedback to oral context:

Ces mécanismes verbaux et non-verbaux fonctionnent comme une sorte de "mécanisme de contrôle en retour" (angl.: feedback system), car les locuteurs peuvent, à tout moment, revenir sur les propos déjà énoncés.

I think such attributions of feedback to oral situations without similar attribution to written situations resides in a presupposition of body to body communication, that is encased consciousness.
Group mind applied to oral situations would complicate the application of a point-to-point telegraphic model to communication situations.
Broad band broadcasting as an other model changes the relation between noise and message.

Butler, Octavia O. Adulthood Rites. New York: Warner, 1988. Second volume of the Xenogenesis trilogy.

As in much of Butler's work, this volume thematizes the organisation of sensory modalities and reproductive models.



Colie, Rosalie L. Paradoxica Epidemica: The Renaissance Tradition of Paradox. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 1966.

"In most situations of ordinary life, words are by convention regarded as adequate, are taken as "matching" reality, and verbal language is usually regarded as the proper medium into which experience is to be translated or transliterated. Love questions all these assumptions: love forces us back upon the fundamental autonomy of experience, subject to its own rules and inexpressible in any other medium."

Colilli, Paul. Signs of the Hermetic Imagination. Monograph Series of the Toronto Semiotic Circle Number 12. Toronto: Toronto Semiotic Circle, 1993.

Chatwin, Bruce. The Songlines. London: Penguin, 1987.

Chaytor, Henry John. From Script to Print: An Introduction to Medieval Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1945. Reprinted in 1950 under the title From Script to Print: An Introduction to Medieval Vernacular Literature.

"[T]he sirventes was a poetical form constructed as the love song, and concerned with social or political satire; these songs broadcasted by jongleurs were passed from mouth to mouth, and, as what we call "news" was scarce and slow in transit, exercised a considerable influence upon general opinion. The political sirventes of Bertran de Born are well known; the personal sirventes of Guillem de Berguedan rival the best efforts of Dr. Goebbels."

Interesting to juxtapose these remarks against McLuhan's on Hitler and radio.

Coste, Didier. Narrative as Communication. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.

Introducing his section on "Narrative through Non-linguistic Media" he writes

"Although our operational theorization cannot proceed pictorially or musically, it does acknowledge that operations of pictorial and musical narrative cognition are not the same as linguistic operations and are not necessarily mere preliminaries; they share certain structures and processes of dissociation, association, comparison, transfer, and so forth, that permit transposition up to a point, but require a particularly careful comparative approach."

Going from narrative to communication Coste clings to sensory divisions which would be impossible if the syntagm were reversed:
theorize from communication to narrative.



Davidson, Mark. Uncommon Sense: The Life and Thought of Ludgwig von Bertalanffy Father of General Systems Theory. Los Angeles: J.P. Tarcher, 1983.

"A system is a manifestation of something intangible, but quite real, called organization. A system, like a work of art, is a pattern rather than a pile. Like a piece of music, it's an arrangement rather than an aggregate. Like a marriage, it's a relationship rather than an encounter."

Davidson pushes his dichotomy a bit far. Organization, pattern, arrangement and encounter can all be similar. Encounters can be and usually are systematic.

Delany, Samuel R. The Mad Man. New York: Richard Kasak, 1994.

"Thoughts are never not clothed in language --- or, rather, that's not the relation between thought and words: the relation between a body and a suit of clothes. Thought is part of language. But everything we perceive, either through our senses, or through our bodily feelings, or through sitting in the dark with our eyes closed, remembering or thinking or figuring, is the "meaning" part of language. So a thought doesn't come "without words." It comes first as simple language --- simple meanings, if you will. Then, what we call "thinking about it" is just the arrival of more complex language that elaborates on it --- that's all. Once the elaborated language has come, we remember the simpler language as somehow prelinguistic."

Delany, Samuel R. Stars in My Pocket Like Grains of Sand. New York, Bantam Books, 1984.

For a peculiar problematization of the couple and perception, see especially the chapter entitled "A Dragon Hunt" where two characters, Rat Korga and Mark Dyeth, project themselves into the phenomenological space of an other species and the whole interaction is witnessed by a third.

Dissanayake, Ellen. Homo Aestheticus. Where Art Comes From and Why. New York: The Free Press, 1992.

Driven by a narrative of evolution as a story of seeking greater control over uncertainty, she neglects the aspects of creativity related to the generation of problems or the making of uncertainty.
Her argument is almost ruined by this onesideness.
Such a narrative also influences her take on orality/literacy questions.

"Writers cannot presume shared knowledge, so they must be explict where a speaker is implicit; precise and careful where a speaker can be careless; streamlined and sparse where a speaker can be redundant."

François Rabelais and Thomas Pynchon spring to mind as counter examples. There are also some odd genderings of the word/image dichotomy. She claims

"traditional women's arts tend to be diagrammatic and geometric, showing the networks of social relationships in which women participate, while men's arts are narrative and descriptive, showing their roles as warriors, hunters and adventurers."
(236, n. 21)



Eagleton, Terry. Walter Benjamin or Towards a Revolutionary Criticism. London: NLB, 1981.

He notes that Eliot and Leavis cast a contrast between Donne and Milton in terms of an auditory and visual dichotomy.

Eco, Umberto. The Limits of Interpretation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

"[t]he double metaphor of the world as a text and a text as a world has a venerable history. To interpret means to react to the text of the world or to the world of a text by producing other texts."

Or I might add to react by refusing to produce other texts.
See de Lauretis on action versus disposition for action.

Erasmus, Desiderius. Patristic Scholarship: The Edition of St. Jerome. Collected Works of Erasmus V. 61. Edited and translated by James F. Brady and John C. Olin Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992.

From the preface to Volume II of Erasmus's edition of St. Jerome (1516)

"[...] style is at once an imaging of the mind in its every facet. It is like physical propagation, where parental features appear in the offspring."

Thanks to Matt DeCoursey for this reference.
Is there a correlation between mimesis, poesis and the range of reproductive models that accompany them?



Frankel, Hans F. "Poetry and Painting: Chinese and Western Views of their Convertability." Comparative Literature 9:4 (Fall 1957). 289-307.

"Naturally, the arduous technical training required in calligraphy, with its disciplined control of brush strokes and lines, was also an excellent preparation for painting."

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its discontents. Trans. J. Strachey. New York: Norton, 1961.

"With every tool man is perfecting his own organs, or removing the limits to their functioning ... Man has, as it were, become a kind of prosthetic God."



Gifford, Don. The Farther Shore. A Natural History of Perception, 1798-1984. New York, Vintage, 1991.

Full of wonderful anecdotes. Of which,

"And there is always the story of the child who preferred the radio to television because he could see the picture so much more clearly."

Gonsalez-Crussi, F. The Five Senses. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1989; rpt. New York: Vintage, 1991.

"I believe that the autonomy of the senses would not be so dear a concept to us if our scheme of perception had been derived from Huichole sources. But Huicholes are not neurophysiologists. Peyote to them is a sacrament, not a botanical specimen belonging to a system thick with species, classes, and genera. Consequently, our theoretical scheme of sense perception was entirely built by somewhat jejune whites, skeptical in outlook, rational, distrustful of the senses, and systematically suspicious of any experience that could not be reduced to words and abstractions. Which is why we have been living by a watered- down idea of the life of the senses: a scientific-rational formula that cannot recognize the intercommunicating nature of perceptions [...]"

Whatever the origin of the compartmentalized senses, there is no doubt about the consequences for cross-cultural communication.

Grimsted, D. "The Purple Rose of Popular Culture Theory: An Exploration of Intellectual Kitsch" American Quarterly 43(4) 541-578.

Sharp aphorisms such as

"The opposite sides of intellectual coins commonly tend to be equally flat"

would have pleased the media guru but perhaps not the edge of satire

"No one has done more to call attention to the mass media than Marshall McLuhan. But McLuhan's cleverness has led him toward such heavy-handed and -headed put-ons as The Medium is the Massage --- and [Woody] Allen to his amusing put- down of the media sage's pundity in Annie Hall."

Others might miss the bite.



Halverson, John. "Goody and the implosion of the literacy thesis." Man 27 (June 1992) 301-317.

"Only if a conversational model is presupposed for the oral medium is immediacy distinctive, but such a model is hardly justified since a great deal of important oral discourse (such as story, myth and ritual) is not in that mode."

"Goody's view conflates what we think about and how we think; only the later is the concern of cognitive theory."

"One unassaiblable point emerges, and this is that reading can radically alter one's thoughts, emotions and behaviour."

Haraway, Donna. "A Manifesto for Cyborgs" in Coming to Terms: Feminism, Theory, Politics. ed. by Elizabeth Weed (London, New York: Routledge, 1989).

"Cyborg imagery can suggest a way out of the maze of dualisms in which we have explained our bodies and our tools to ourselves. This is a dream not of a common language, but of a powerful infidel heteroglossia."

Hewitt, Marsha. "Is Sexism Genetic?" Our Generation 16:2 (Spring 1984), 7-14.

A critique of Mary O'Brien.

"What is wrong here is that O'Brien assumes time- consciousness to be linear; yet there are cultures which do not and never have understood time in this way. So then how can time- consciousness said to be determined by biology?"

"Families create women and men who view each other in terms of dualistic antagonisms, a necessary fiction which the social order fosters in order to maintain itself."

Hiss, Tony. The Experience of Place. New York: Knopf, 1990.

"While normal waking consciousness works to simplify perception, allowing us to act quickly and flexibly by helping us remain seemingly oblivious to almost everything except the task in front of us; simultaneous perception is more like an extra, or a sixth, sense: It broadens and diffuses the beam of attention evenhandedly across all the senses so we can take in whatever is around us -- which means sensations of touch and balance, for instance, in addition to all sights, sounds, and smells."

Holub, Robert C. Crossing Borders: Reception Theory, Poststructuralism, Deconstruction. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.

For a succinct statement of the stakes in policing the question of which objects are to be perceived by whom.

"The issue separating them here is thus really one of epistemology as much as of literary theory. Perception of any sort is for Fish a mediated activity; it is never "innocent of assumptions," while for Iser, it would appear, there are some things that simply exist and must be perceived by all viewers."

And for a gorgeous phrase,

"the sophistry of the radically skeptical antitheoretical position"

Huxley, Aldous. The Doors of Perception. London: Chatto and Windus, 1954; London: Grafton Books, 1977.

"We live together, we act on, and react to, one another; but always and in all circumstances we are by ourselves. The martyrs go hand in hand into the arena; they are crucified alone. Embraced, the lovers desperately try to fuse their insulated ecstasies into a single self-transcending; in vain."



Interfaces 5. 1994. Dijon: Centre de Recherches Image Texte Language, Université de Bourgogne.

This issue is a selection of papers from a 1993 conference on theory of the relation between image and language.
Michel Baridon contributes an annotated bibliography.



Jay, Martin. Downcast Eyes: The denigration of vision in twentieth-century French thought. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

A magistral survey that traces

"the detranscendentalization of perspective",
"the recorporealization of the subject"


"the revalorization of time over space".

Jay, Nancy. "Gender and Dichotomy," Feminist Studies 7(1) Spring 1981, pp. 38-56.

Examines two epistles of St. Paul noting the distinction in addressee for appeals based on contradiction versus those based on contraries.

Joyce, Michael. "Notes Toward an Unwritten Non-linear Electronic Text, "The Ends of Print Culture". Postmodern Culture 2:1 (Sept. 1991).

"We can re-embody reading if we see that the network is ours to inhabit. There are no technologies without humanities; tools are human structures and modalities."

Odd Heideggerian overtones here.
I prefer to reverse the syntagm: modalities and structures are tools,
no humanities without technologies.
Furthermore, who is the "we" that disembodied reading in the first place?



Krieger, Murray. Ekphrasis: The illusion of the natural sign. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univeristy Press, 1992.

"The art that is designated as a natural-sign art, when the arts are viewed as forms of representation, is differnent from the art considered closest to nature, when the arts are viewed as modes of human expression"

Krieger points to the Longinian versus the Horation traditions as opposing views on the dependence on external materials and implements.
He continues

"In the latter consideration [expressionistic view], nature itself, as it realizes itself in the expressions of human nature, dictates that what otherwise was called the natural-sign arts be consigned to the category of artifice dependent upon external materials and implements."

McLuhan would represent a contrary movement - the naturalization of tools.



Lauretis, Teresa. Alice Doesn't: Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.

"semiosis specifies the mutual overdetermination of meaning, perception, and experience, a complex nexus of reciprocally constitutive effects between the subject and social reality, which, in the subject, entail a continual modification of consciousness; that consciousness in turn being the condition of social change."

Lévi-Strauss, Claude. Regarder Écouter Lire. Paris: Plon, 1993.

"L'esprit humain était capable de concevoir ces formes et leurs rapports bien avant que leur existence réelle ne lui fût révélée."

The thesis of disenchantment of the world in the wake of technological innovation still produces some beautiful and enchanting lines.

Lloyd, Genevieve. The Man of Reason: "Male" and "Female" in Western Philosophy. London: Methuen, 1984.

Certainly helps one distinguish between the text of Descartes and Cartesianism.

"In the Sixth Meditation he acknowledged that the inferior senses, once they have been set aside from the search for truth - - where they can only mislead and distort -- are reliable guides to our well-being. To trust them is not irrational. He does not maintain that we are rational only when exercising arduous pure thoughts, engaged in intellectual contemplation and assembling chains of deduction. Indeed, he thinks it is not rational to spend an excessive amount of time in such purely intellectual activity."



Markham, Sheila H. "Islamic Calligraphy." Antiquarian Book Monthly Review 16:1 (Jan. 1989).

"Islamic literature delights in the image of the reed as pen for the calligrapher and instrument for the musician, both revealing man's inner thoughts to the different senses."

The balance is lost in the sentence immediately following:

"There would be general agreement with Walter Pater's remark that "all art constantly aspires towards the condition of music.""

Marshall, Stuart. "The Contemporary Political Use of Gay History: The Third Reich" in How Do I Look? Queer Film and Video. Eds. Bad Object-Choices. Seatle: Bay Press, 1991.

"The problem with homosexuals, as far as the Third Reich was concerned, was the fact that they supposedly did not reproduce."

Marshall contrasts Nazi racial and sexual regulation.
Useful for developing a sense of the complexity of reproductive models.

Miles, Margaret R. Image as Insight: Visual Understanding in Western Christianity and Secular Culture. Boston: Beacon Press, 1985.

Mitchell, W.J.T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

"The point, then, is not to heal the split between words and images, but to see what interests and powers it serves."

Mowitt, John. Text: The Genealogy of an Antidisciplinary Object. Durhan: Duke University Press, 1992.

Most interesting final chapter which revisits Eisenstein's introduction of movement as a category uniting visual and musical modes of signification.



Ong, Walter J. Ramus: Method, and the Decay of Dialogue. from the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason. Cambridge, Mass. & London: Harvard University Press, 1958. rpt. 1983.

McLuhan seems to have missed Ong's distinction between the personalist and corporationalist role of the teacher (152).
Ong sets a difference between two types of knowledge as a move from one to the other although he admits they continue to cohabitate.
One does not entirely replace the other.
What ever one thinks of historiography according to dominant modes, the medium does not solely dictate the paths of change.
The institution may be a greater shaper than the medium.



Parker, Andrew. "Unthinking Sex: Marx, Engels, and the Scene of Writing" in Fear of a Queer Planet: Queer Politics and Social Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

Examines how production is modeled on procreation and the heterosexist consequences of this alignment.

Perron, Paul and Marcel Danesi. A.J. Greimas and Narrative Cognition. Monograph Series of the Toronto Semiotic Circle Number 11. Toronto: Toronto Semiotic Circle, 1993.

Perron, Paul. Jan Gordon and Marcel Danesi. "Commonplaces and Situations: The "Subjective" Nature of Discourse Revisited." The Toronto Semiotic Circle Bulletin 2:1 1994.

"It is our view that commonplaces point to an inherent feature of cognition that can only be described as an extension of visual sensory experience into the domain of abstract thought. In other words, they appear to reveal a tendency to fix abstract modes of thinking in a kind of "mind-space" which is itself an iconic model of the world of sensation."

Why do they privilege the visual mode?
Perhaps they have opted for focus versus attention.
There may be some link between iconic model and indexical foreclosure in their statement

"The experientialist approach sees abstract meaning structures as end-products rather than points-of-departure. The starting point is, of course, the level of bodily sensations and emotional feelings captured by basic signifying processes (e.g. indexical and iconic signs). The progression from sensory to conceptual thought that an experientialist approach to meaning would posit makes it clear that there is a link between ego-states, perception and conception."

End products vs points of departure -- abstraction is here pitted against physical embodiment of emotion and sensation but emotion belongs with abstraction not sensation because both emotion and abstraction depend upon memory and its testing in prediction.

Emotion is a configuration.

Pronger, Brian. The Arena of Masculinity: Sports, Homosexuality, and the Meaning of Sex. 1990; rpt University of Toronto Press, 1992.

"When the physical and mental come together in sexual activity, they are intensely and pleasurably merged. This is a process in which the abstract nature of thinking becomes incarnate in actual physical experience."

"[T]he homoerotic paradox is twofold. It is a paradox by being outside the orthodox erotic interpretation of gender myths. It is also a paradox in the stricter sense of being a self- contradiction; homoerotic desire both reveres and violates masculinity."



Robinson, Douglas. "Dear Harold." New Literary History 20:1 (Autumn 1988).

"Mere temporal priority does not make writers parents, we [critics] do. If we want to. If we allow ourselves to be victimized by institutionalized culture worship, if we surrender to the parental images our civilization generates of its precursors."

Robinson, Douglas. The Translator's Turn. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.

"Ethically conceived," translation as a task is set upon discovering the significance, commonality and malleability of somatic response.

Ronell, Avital. The Telephone Book: Technology, Schizophrenia, Electric Speech. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

"it [telephony] is a place without location from which to get elsewhere"

Rothenberg, Jerome. Shaking the Pumpkin: Traditional Poetry of the Indian North Americas. Revised Edition. New York: Alfred Van der Mark, 1986.

This along with the anthology Technicians of the Sacred offer examples of Rothenberg's concern with what he calls "total translation," a term he uses

"for translation (of oral poetry in particular) that takes into account any or all elements of the original beyond the words."

"Each moment is charged: each is a point at which meaning is coming to surface, where nothing's incidental but everything matters terribly."

Compare with Hermetic Imagination.



Sanderson, George and Frank Macdonald, eds. Marshall McLuhan: The Man and His Message. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum, Inc., 1989.

In this collection, Walter Ong expresses reservations about McLuhan's use of the term "medium".

I myself now tend to avoid speaking of the oral, writing, print and electronic "media." "Medium," something in-between you and me, suggests a kind of pipeline transfer of units of "information" which, even with feedback loops, is hardly adequate as a description of verbal communication among human beings. I prefer to speak now of oral communication and of the technological transformation of the word by writing, print and electronics, remembering that human beings interiorize their technologies by making them a part of themselves. We have interiorized writing and print so deeply that we are unaware of them as technological components of our private thinking processes, and we are engaged in rapidly interiorizing the computer in a similar way.

Total emphasis on interiorization is of course no less problematic than extension.

Silverman, Kaja. The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and Cinema. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1988.

Examines the politics of synchronization of voice and image in classic Hollywood cinema and women's experimental film.

Stein, Gertrude. Narration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1935.

The third lecture opens

"Narrative concerns itself with what is happening all the time, history concerns itself with what happens from time to time. And that is perhaps what is the matter with history and that is what is perhaps the matter with narrative."

Steiner, Wendy. The Colors of Rhetoric. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1982.

Silko, Leslie Marmon. Storyteller. New York: Arcade, 1981.

"The story ends there./ Some of the stories/ Aunt Susie told/ have this kind of ending./ There are no explanations."

Silko, Leslie Marmon. Almanac of the Dead. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.

"Angelita La Escapˇa imagined Marx as a storyteller who worked feverishly to gather together a magical assembly of stories to cure the suffering and evils of the world by the retelling of the stories."

Read this in conjunction with Jack Weatherford.

Stonum, Gary Lee. "Cybernetic Explanation as a Theory of Reading." New Literary History 20:2 (Winter 1989). 397-410.

"[N]oise and information are both instances of variety in the signal and hence not phenomenally or logically distinct."

"Discriminating between information and noise may not be difficult in a given situation, but the discrimination can never be certain."

Strang, Barbara M. Metaphors and Models, an Inaugural Lecture delivered before the University of Newcastle on Tyne on Monday 12 October, 1964. Newcastle: University of Newcastle on Tyne, 1965.

"[T]he direct connection between theory and description means that we need large numbers of people working in the field. Quite apart from the fact that languages need to be redescribed because they change so quickly, there will always be a need for re-description in terms of different metaphors, models and theories."

This leads me to consider the effects of description and offer a three-fold typology:
reticulation (networks spreading out)
as opposed to
reiteration (implies going over same route)
iteration (treading water).
Relate this to Judith Schlanger's use for the noise of popularization in
L'invention intellectuelle.

Sullivan, Michael. The Three Perfections: Chinese Painting, Poetry and Calligraphy. London: Thames and Hadson, 1974; rpt. NY: George Braziller, 1980.

"We can only understand the Chinese attitude if we can see the picture as the Chinese do, not as a complete artistic statement in itself, but as a living body, an accretion of qualities, imaginative, literary, historical, personal, that grows with time, putting on an ever-richer dress of meaning, commentary and association with the years."

Is this a fair description of the European emblem book as well?



Taylor, Charles. Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989.

"[w]e take as basic that the human agent exists in a space of questions."

Thompson, E.P. The Poverty of Theory and other essays. London: Merlin Press, 1978.

"[I]t is exactly in conditions when a theory (or a theology) is subject to no empirical controls that disputes about the placing of one term lead on to theoretical parturition: the parturition of intellectual parthenogenesis."

You do not have to value empirical controls to value

"attentive disbelief"

Thompson, Robert Farris. Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy. New York: Random House, 1983.

Traces the survival of verbal and non-verbal systems of notation.

Trinh, T. Minh-ha. "Grandma's Story" in Woman, Native, Other: Writing Postcoloniality and Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

"The structural activity that does not carry on the cleavage between form and content, but emphasizes the interrelation of the material and the intelligible, is an activity in which structure should remain an unending question [...]"



Vail, Leroy and Landeg White. Power and the Praise Poem: Southern African Voices in History. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia: 1991.

Opening chapter does much to demystify the constructions of "oral man".
Their notion of metaphor seems akin to the operations of symbol.
However without the timelessness and ahistoricity.

"Metaphors, by fusing abstract concepts with concrete images, have the characteristic of uniting physical and metaphysical elements into a rich compound of meaning. Like theory, they transcend empiricism, but in an open manner, cherishing complexity and receptive to fresh expression and interpretation."

Virilio, Paul. L'espace critique. Paris: Christian Bourgois Editeur, 1984.

"Dimensionner c'est en quelque sorte déphaser"



Weatherford, Jack. Indian Givers: How the Indians of the Americas Transformed the World. New York: Crown, 1988.

Engels inspired by Iroquois Confederacy and kinship structures.
Worth examining this material for part of the Euro-history of sensory organization and trace its epistemological consequences.

Wellek, René. "The Concept of Evolution in Literary History" in For Roman Jakobson. Morris Halle et al. compilers. The Hague: Mouton, 1956.

"We are expected to forget that novelty need not be valuable or essential, that there may be, after all, original rubbish."

Wellek, René. Four Critics: Croce, Valéry, Lukács, and Ingardern. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 1981.

On Ingarden,

"He elaborately distinguishes between different kinds of reading: passive, mere enjoyment, for amusement; and active reading, which assumes two forms -- reading which has as its aim an investigative, intellectual grasp of the work, or, finally, reading which submits to the aesthetic qualities. Much ingenuity is spent in differentiating between these different kinds of reading, although, I think, it would be difficult in practice to keep them apart, to prevent their mixing and our shifting between them."

Wellek, René. "The Parallelism between Literature and the Arts." English Institute Annual 1941. New York: Columbia University Press, 1942. 29-63.

"The various arts -- the plastic arts, literature, and music -- have each their individual evolution, with a different tempo and a different internal structure of elements. No doubt they are in constant relationship with each other, but these relationships are not influences which start from one point and determine the evolution of the other arts; they have to be conceived rather as a complex scheme of dialectical relationships which work both ways, from one art to another and vice versa, and may be completely transformed within the art which they have entered."

Wellbery, David E. Lessing's Laocoon: Semiotics and Aesthetics in the Age of Reason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

"Lessing's most important theoretical writing after the Laocoon, the Hamburgische Dramaturgie (1767) describes the locus of this convergence [between poetry and painting]: "The art of the actor occupies a middle position between the plastic arts and poetry"'"

Wilden, Anthony. System and Structure: Essays in Communication and Exchange. Second Edition. London: Tavistock, 1980.

Useful notion: punctuation of social reality.
Draws parallels between dialectic and feedback.

"A phenomenological approach to communication implicitly or explicitly assumes that all behaviour is communication."

Willis, Susan. Specifying Black Women Writing the American Experience. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.

"The body provides a medium for the metaphors of history, making these metaphors experientially concrete."

Wilson, Alexander. The Culture of Nature: North American Landscape from Disney to the Exxon Valdez. Toronto: Between the Lines, 1991.

"A rhetorical rejection of science, however, with no attention paid to oppositional currents within the discipline, amounts to little more than anti-intellectualism."


wake bridge prow

© François Lachance, 1996