Introduction to Online Learning:
Tools and Processes

Instructional Events

Reiguluth proposes nine instructional events. They are listed in the table below. The columns under the headings "Teacher Needs" and "Student Needs" are left blank for you to consider what must be in place in an online environment for a successful out come to an instructional event.

EventTeacher NeedsStudent Needs
Gaining Attention   
Informing Learner of Objective    
Stimulating recall of prerequiste learnings    
Presenting the stimulus material    
Providing learning guidance    
Eliciting the performance    
Providing feedback about performance correctness   
Assessing the performance   
Enhancing retention and transfer   

Note Reiguluth use the gerund or the present participle to characterize these events. The events happen in time. They have duration. They may therefore be organized in such a ways as they overlap. The events may occur in a linear fashion, one after the other. They may be arranged so that participants work through them in a cyclical fashion. They may be aligned according to the principles of a constant feedback system where each successive step can loop back to the previous s tep. A branching system is also possible where the outcome of certain events determines the next event. See Don Koberg and Jim Bagnall The Universal Traveler: a soft-systems guide to creativity, problem-solving and the process of reaching goals (1973) for an application of these categories to a design process.

I would tend to break the nineth event into two. This is because retention brings to mind the memory element of verbal recall and motor skills. Transfer indicates to me an ability to deal with new material (intellectual skill) or even invent new situat ions to test and apply knowledge (cognitive strategy). Try linking these events to any of the five learning categories and don't forget the learning of attitudes.

Charles Reiguluth Instructional-Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current Status 1983