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Globalization and the Image I
Imagining the Global
2002 MLA Convention
New York City, NY
28 December

Melba Cuddy-Keane
University of Toronto

Imaging/Imagining Globalization: Maps and Models

[Permission is given to cite this paper with full acknowledgement to the author and to SCE. This version is December 26, 2002. Responses are welcomed and may be sent by email to me by clicking on my name above. For copyright reasons, and for easy access to this file, the accompanying illustrations are given as links to internet sites. If you go exploring, I suggest you bookmark this page, so that you can find your way back.]

A quick browse through current journals or bibliographical databases readily testifies to the recent proliferation, in the humanities and social sciences, of titles that include the word 'mapping.' The applications are varied and suggestive, but the following selection is enough to demonstrate the striking recurrence of this trope:

China Off Center: Mapping the Margins of the Middle Kingdom (2002)
Cultures in Motion: Mapping Key Contacts and Their Imprints in World History (2001)
Feminist Cyberscapes: Mapping Gendered Academic Spaces (1999)
A Geography Of Victorian Gothic Fiction: Mapping History's Nightmares (1999)
Literature, Mapping, and The Politics of Space in Early Modern Britain (2001)
Mapping African America: History, Narrative Formation, and the Production of Knowledge (1999)
Mapping Canadian Cultural Space: Essays on Canadian Literature (2000)
Mapping Jewish Identities (2000)
Mapping Male Sexuality: Nineteenth-Century England (2000)
Mapping Memories: Urdu Stories from India and Pakistan (1998)
Mapping Modernities: Geographies of Central and Eastern Europe, 1920-2000 (2002)
Mapping Subaltern Studies and the Postcolonial (2000)
Mapping the Empty: Eight Artists and Nevada (1999)
Mapping the Ethical Turn: A Reader in Ethics, Culture, and Literary Theory (2001)
Mapping the Present: Heidegger, Foucault, and the Project of a Spatial History (2001)
Mapping the Sacred: Religion, Geography and Postcolonial Literatures (2001)
Odysseys Home: Mapping African-Canadian Literature (2002)
Orientations: Mapping Studies in the Asian Diaspora (2001)

And last but not least:
What Remains to be Discovered: Mapping the Secrets of the Universe, the Origins of Life, and the Future of the Human Race (1998)

As the list reveals, we are witnessing a conjunction between the charting of space and the charting of knowledge--a conjunction that raises the question of the relation between the turn to spatial tropes and our increasingly globalized consciousness of the world. Yet oddly enough, humanists and cultural critics have turned to the trope of mapping while geographers have been launching their most fundamental critiques of traditional cartographic practices. As Neil Smith and Cindi Katz point out, the discipline of geography was founded on assumptions of absolute space--"space as field or container, describable by a two-or three-dimensional metric of co-ordinates" (74). And the problem is that, although literary and cultural analyses increasingly recognize the fluidity, relationality, and multiplicity of the experiencing subject, the recent turn to geographic metaphor marks an uneasy gap between the destabilized subject and a discourse of spatial essentialism: "'Space' itself is rendered unproblematic, in startling contrast to the 'everything flows' of the social" (79). As Smith and Katz argue, since space itself is socially constructed and therefore as fluid and dynamic as the travelling subject, a slippage occurs between the material ground, or the "source domain," and the metaphorical dimension, or the "target domain." (69). Despite the multiplicity of locations being charted, the objective practices of surveying, circumscribing, and recording inscribe the notion of intellectual territorial mastery. Indeed, Smith and Katz speculate that it may be the extraordinary disruption and dispersion of previous knowledges and assumptions that occasions the turn to a non-problematized discourse: "space is largely exempted from such sceptical scrutiny precisely so it can be held constant to provide some semblance of order for an otherwise floating world of ideas" (80).

Increasingly, however, the breakdown of absolute notions of space is transforming traditional cartographic practices. Despite Baudrillard's concept of simulacra with its implication that "it is the map that engenders the territory" (166), it is equally true that new or previously unobserved spatial relations demand new strategies for mapping, with the boomerang effect that the new strategies in turn stimulate new spatial imaginings. Without denying Baudrillard's insight that fabrication produces the observable real, we can also recognize the real as what intercedes in our fabricating, exposing the limitations of existing languages and stimulating reformulations of our fabrication. If globalization transforms the nature of spatial relations, then new mapping strategies are needed to depict those relations, and the strategies themselves will then prompt further reflection on the nature and conditions of our knowledge.

To return, then, to the question of imaging globalization, we might describe the current predicament as one of employing a language inflected with terrorialized constructions of space to express the complicated and shifting spatial dynamics of a deterritorialized globe. Again with recourse to geographers, we might say that an older, geopolitical language is being employed, with some hazards and difficulty, to track the complex processes of globalization. This distinction, I must emphasize, rests on a historical definition of the first term. Today 'geopolitics' is often used to signify any locational approach to political issues or any political understanding of space, but the term as first introduced bore the specific connotation of location as territorially framed.

Geopolitik was coined in 1899 by the Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén, who--building on the work of German geographer Freidrich Ratzel--used the term to signify a Darwinian understanding of state power as dependent on territorial growth: stronger organisms survive by displacing the weaker. Although Kjellén's theories had perhaps their greatest influence on the ideology that informed Nazi Germany, the geopolitical model is taken to be the dominant paradigm in the West until the end of the Cold War, fulfilling Halford Makinder's prediction, in 1904, that the struggle for world power would focus on territorial control of Eurasia. As geographer Brian Blouet points out, geopolitics is a land-based ideology; it locates power in territorial magnitude, and makes its goal the carving up of earth's space. In contrast, Blouet identifies globalization as originally a maritime-based ideology deriving in large part from the Dutch; it offers an open rather than closed space paradigm, locating power in movement rather than bounded territory. It is important to note that the contrast is not one of bad geopolitics versus good globalization; both paradigms are subject to imperialist cooption. As Ian Baucom has recently shown, the Dutch seaborne empire was inherently imperialist; more immediately, although it may be helpful to describe the cartography of globalization as mapping fluidities, today even water threatens to become an article of imperialist control.(#1) But the geopolitical paradigm shifts to that of globalization as the world becomes increasingly based on the international or global circulation of capital, information, goods, and services, and the operative model shifts from bounded space to multi-directional flows.

The criticism of the last few decades has of course alerted us to the ideological agenda in geopolitical structures and the hidden positionality in supposedly neutral mappings of space. Analyses of early twentieth-century cartography have exposed the encodings of its predominantly Eurocentric and masculine perspectives, its privileging of a Northern and Western focalization, its foregrounding of geopolitical relations based on discrete territorial units, and the primacy given to borders and frontiers as delimiting boundaries.(#2) In A Room with A View, E. M. Forster mocks the way the Baedeker topographical map attempts to order and regulate the tourist's perceptions of Florence: in the walker's transgressive personal space, the map's uniform square grid is overwritten by Lucy Honeychurch's straying into the area of the Foundlings' Hospital and, in an open square, brushing up against the passions of Italian life. [1906 Baedeker: link1 with Lucy's path: link1a.  The partition of Africa generated one of the most blatant of geopolitical maps, wryly recorded in another of Forster's novels, when the former Margaret Schlegel observes a map in the offices of her husband's company "on which the whole continent appeared, looking like a whale marked out for blubber" (Howards End, Ch. 23), or in Marlow's description in Heart of Darkness, of the parti-coloured map with its smears of red, blue, green, orange, and purple. [World Atlas, Tokyo, 1870 link2] Traditional cartographic practice both naturalized concepts of contiguous borders and gave primacy to the land masses that could be so circumscribed. Not only was the world divided into nations; ideological identities were demarcated as regions of the globe. Yet while such territorial marking has been amply critiqued, representations of the global today still reflect the entrenchment of the geopolitical mode.

Images of the globe when used in corporate logos tend, not surprisingly, to be strongly territorial; computer animation has made it possible to show the earth's rotation, thus suggesting both movement and mobility, but the main progression from earlier images would seem to be that the territory is now not the country, nor the continent, but the globe. [link3] Similarly but more surprisingly, the geopolitical imagination is still strongly reflected in numerous books published on globalization today. A common image, seen on many book covers, is a lightly sketched schematization of the globe focalized from a position in outer space. The satellite focalization removes us from the Eurocentric positioning of early twentieth-century cartography, yet by emphasizing stable land masses and unipositionality, these images still reflect the dominance of the territorial imagination, fixed forms, and absolute space. [link4] The difference here may be that it is not political or economic control that is being represented but knowledge control. To grasp the world as a whole, to conceive what Dan Falk discusses as the quest for a "theory of everything" (TOE) becomes the aim of the new globalized scholar.

But alternatively, and resistantly, a number of works on globalization abandon cartographic imagery for human photography or representations of aesthetic objects, seeking in the process to convey more complex patterns. The PMLA special issue on "Globalizing Literary Studies," for example, depicts a sidewalk teeming with people in São Paulo, setting up a tension between the stationary tourist market stalls drawing the crowds and the random movement of human flows. [link5 with permission of PMLA] Even more suggestively, the cover of Phillip Darby's The Fiction of Imperialism: Reading Between International Relations and Postcolonialism images a portion of the Asia-Pacific Ant Farm by Yukinori Yanagi (1994). [link6] This installation piece "consists of 36 ant farms that represent the nations once included in the planned 'Great East Asian Co-prosperity Sphere' and the former European suzerian powers. The ant farms are connected by plastic tubes. The live ants travel inside these tubes carrying grains of coloured sand from flag to flag. The recognizable symbols of the individual flags become intermixed, and the installation gradually dissolves and evolves into one universal flag."(#3) [link7] Such imaging of globalization invokes the kinetic irregularity of process through patterns of reiteration without replication, and through deformation as well as new formation.

Such complex patterns are difficult to capture in traditional cartography. The inadequacy of single-map representation is exposed by Philippe Rekacewicz in his visual analogue for Achille Mbembe's reconceptualization of Africa as a manifold of over-lapping relations among areas on the continent, "not in terms of their location but rather in terms of shifts in global politics and global economics" (703; emphasis added). But for the cartographer Rekacewicz, conceptualization has at this point outstripped representation: "Mapping," he states, "which is à priori a compromised mode of representation of materiality, here confronts an additional challenge: to render accurately the territories of the author's imagination." And he concludes, "It is here that the limitations of cartographic representation reside, so that once the elements of the map, in too great a number, are superimposed one on top of another they ultimately efface each other's significance" (704). [link8 with permission of Public Culture]

But it is here as well that computerized cartography catches up to the human imagination. When I began work on this paper, my hypothesis was that the map could no longer serve as a metaphorical chart of imagined space and that our recourse would have to be to biological modelling, or perhaps to interactive installation pieces in contemporary art galleries, for ways of inscribing kinetic rather than static space. But in the digitalized realm, cartography has shifted from a science of fixed topographical transcription to a modelling of dynamic processes and relations. As Michael Brint writes of virtual reality, "in its more mature forms, it acts not as a mirror of nature, but as an extension of the human imagination within logical rather than physical space" (13). Cartographic representation does not determine the limits of thought but rather is pushed to expand technological capabilities in order to display new perceptions of relations: in the digital realm, "maps provide a visual landscape for an array of relations (political, religious, economic, personal, environmental). How we visualize space is contingent on how we conceptualize those relations in terms of our purposes and our ends" (14).

The pluralistic relational mapping of digitalized cartography is illustrated, for example, in Martin Dodge and Rob Kitchin's Atlas of Cyberspace, especially in the complex representations of global internet connectivity. I do not mean here to imply anything about the politics of the Internet or the philosophies of cyberfiction; my concern here is simply with the representation of space in cartographic practice. The multidimensionality and the multi-directionality of cyberspace mapping shifts us from absolute to navigable space, and from the assumption of one homogeneous space to multiple overlapping spaces relative to the users and the practices involved. [link9-don't forget to come back] In addition, computerized maps have become interactive, allowing the viewer to shift point of view and creating an interactive relation between mapmaker and map-reader. A further innovation, developed by Teuvo Kohonen, is the Self Organizing Map algorithm, based on the model of tracking the electronic impulses fired by neurons in the brain, to map biological brain function. [link10] As if the impulses themselves were drawing lines in the process of their functioning, self-organizing maps "automatically organize information [. . .] based on relevant categories of relation rather than geographical location" (Brint 15). Marine biologists in South Africa, for example, employ self-organized mapping to analyse thermal variations and outbreaks of blue-green algae; and they conceive of the computerized representation as the bridge between intuited and useable knowledge: "[a]s scientists we often want to identify patterns that we believe, either through intuition or experience, are in our data."(#4) Mapping water as a space of flows, always changing and responding to multiple influences, always subject to the human ability to project and imagine, transforms cartographic practice. In a related move, I argue in a longer study, E. M. Forster shifts from the square gird of Florentian streets to the flowing waters of the Arno and their imaginatively contiguous relation with the "Sacred Lake"--which, in the predominantly closed space paradigm of the novel, is located in the "other" continent of England.

What, then, are the metaphorical implications of new mapping strategies for globalization studies in the humanities? In literary studies, we might say that the geopolitical closed-space paradigm was the operative model for first-wave postcolonial studies, in which opposition to the imperial centre focused on the distinctiveness and autonomy of identities that were or continued to be marginalized and suppressed. The ideology of traditional cartography was subjected to critique and subversion, but the territorial binary of Self and Other was rewritten rather than removed. Taking this observation further, Arif Dirlik somewhat contentiously writes, "few postcolonial critics of whom I am aware have been prepared to go so far as to argue that the postcolonial nation-state itself was a product of colonialism-itself, that is, colonialist in its assumptions of national economic and political organization and its aspirations to the purity and homogeneity of national identity" (612). But whereas Dirlik makes this point to argue the need to shift from anti-colonial to anti-capitalist critique, my point is that, as we move toward studies of globalization, closed space mapping practice obscures the multiplicity of connections and cross-overs that additionally inform the relations between people from different cultures or in different locations. Lacking an adequate model for kinetic, imbricated, multiply-determined relations, resistance to domination--whether it is the political imperialism of empire or the economic imperialism of the multinational elites--becomes organized not as an alternative discourse but as the mirror image of the oppression. The geopolitical imaginary has structured not only the space of "capitalist patriarchy and racist imperialism," as Smith and Katz argue, but the space of resistant and revolutionary discourse as well.

Border studies, hybridity studies, and what we might call migratory studies, however, are beginning to erode notions of fixed space, supplanting absolute space with concepts of navigable space instead. The plural 'mappings' that I omitted in my opening list of titles, for example, reflects a strategy of tracking multiple co-ordinates--ordering knowledge, it is true, but ordering it into multiple conceptual categories and so preserving flexibility and variability in particularized applications. In the work of Susan Stanford Friedman, for example, just as feminism becomes feminisms so mapping becomes mappings; the critic's task becomes the tracing of multiplicitous encounters--not merely between selves, not merely within the self, but theoretically between the constructs of pure difference and unlimitable free play. This criticism--hybrid itself-- addresses "the way these differences are continually in the process of modification through interactions within a global system of diverse, multidirectional exchanges" (7).

To some extent, however, such new cartographic practices merely add complexity to old models. We recognize multiple, overlapping, even contradictory patterns but it is difficult to say if the essential paradigm of knowledge has been disturbed. If, as Friedman points out, even the meaning of hybridity changes depending on the location of the moving subject, then even the significance of hybridity studies alters depending on the cultural location in which the critic is performing her work. The mapping of cyberspace would seem to engage such a paradigm by resisting the privileging of any one positionality and inscribing a plurality of source nodes distributed around the world, yet even such multi-directional maps still set the exchanges within the parameters of an over-riding universal system.

Are there, then, further images that would signify not only the complexity of the moving subject but the unstable ground of our critical discourse as well? Is it possible to imagine the global without the attendant implications of an all-encompassing theory of everything, a TOE? Might alternatives be found in a further shift from cartographic mapping to cartographic visualization, in imaginings rather than chartings of the world? One graphic representation with resonance in this respect is the "hollow core globe," especially when the continents are merely sketched in outline and when the globe revolves [link11] The empty centre allows us to see through one hemisphere to glimpse the reverse side of the other half; we never see all continents displayed before us at the same time, yet we are always glimpsing the underside of those hidden from our view. As the globe revolves, the continental outlines are alternately distinct and blurred, separated and conjoined, as they separate and superimpose. Land forms also do not dominate over connecting seas but, perhaps even more important, the hollow core itself inscribes the blank space of the unknown--the blankness whose very mystery drew in Conrad's Marlow as a boy, but which is here preserved as a permanent part of our imaginings: there is always a space of absence to remind us that we never absolutely reach the other side.

Alterations in scale similarly model a destabilizing space, with one well recognized global phenomenon being "the shrinking world." This seemingly contemporary phrase occurs at least as early as the early twentieth century, when the new technologies of travel made it clear that distance was no longer to be measured in absolute terms. A popular work on international relations prophetically entitled The Dawn of World-Order (1932), for example, diagrams the distance of stage coach travel between Bath and London in 1832 as equivalent to the distance in airway travel between London and Berlin in 1932.(#5) The spherical globe is represented as just short of two inches in diameter in 1832, but as just three-eighths of an inch in 1932. Distance becomes a function of human use.

Conceptually, however, such representations can also make us feel the shrinking of the human subject. Rather than giving us a sense of the world in manageable proportions, accommodated to the human mind, we seem plunged back into the politics of Baedeker's grid--newly confronted with the erosion and obliteration of personal space. A different effect, however, is created through the manipulation of scale in a truly extraordinary short video, The Miniature Earth, with text by Donella Meadows and visual production by Alysson Lucca. [link12 takes a few minutes, but well worth it] Working from the premise of proportionally reducing the population of the earth to a community of 100 people, the film makes experiential sense of the distributions of race, sex, gender, religion, living conditions, health, education, wealth. Here the politics of scale put the viewer in the picture; furthermore, the accompanying images invite her to look even as they produce her as "looked at" at the same time. There is, it is true, both an empathetic and an ethical message in this work, but it conveys its stance not through a TOE, but through a shrinking of the globe until it enters personal space. What it urges is the ability not so much to see things whole, as to look through the hollow globe to connect to the eyes of other people who are looking through at us.

Globalization is thus moving in two ways: toward increasing complexity and toward increasing simplification, toward grander and more intricate conceptualizations of the whole and toward the face of a stranger whose eyes our own are meeting for the first time. There has been a great deal of discussion of the global and the local--of the ways globalization intensifies the local and is experienced through the local, of the ways the local frames the experience of globalization differently for people differently situated in the world. I would like to add that the global may also take us toward a renewed awareness of the personal--our personal relations with space, our personal relations with other persons.

In another book entitled Mapping--this one literally on geographical techniques for representing space and location--Daniel Dorling and David Fairbairn predict that in the future maps will be increasingly drawn by individuals for themselves rather than by companies and government organizations" (156). Using the four-dimensions of basic cartographic software, people will be able to visualize their lives "as threads running through time" (158) and will use maps as forms of self-expression and decision making and as ways to bring private experience into the public, social realm. Released from the uniformity and standardization attached to the "universally true," maps return to the function of recording individual lives--rather like the map that accompanied Daniel Defoe's third volume of the experiences of Robinson Crusoe, in 1720. [link13] If--remembering the paradigm of multiply directed flows--we think of Crusoe as an immigrant as well as a colonizer, we can read his map as a record of his experience of surviving in a new land. His map records the patterns traced in his mind because of the significance of what happened there; it marks places of danger and places of safety; it records the island's bounty and its treachery. With computerized mapping, the fourth-dimension of time could be independently charted; as it is, Crusoe's map transgresses the temporal dimension to convey the simultaneity of the mental map . As David Blewett comments, the island conspectus is both "diachronic and synoptic" (29); it allows the reader to trace the routes of Crusoe's experiences in volume one, but conveys the impact of a whole experience as the stimulus now of further reflections. And reading this personal map allows readers to access Crusoe's private space and to share his world.

Once we enter the realm of imaginative geographies, we expand our potential for seeing through others' eyes--perhaps to move toward them in empathy, perhaps to be humbled by their wisdom. My final illustrations here engage the eyes of children and the extraordinary ways they are now imagining and imaging the globe. The International Cartographic Association (ICA) has established a children's map competition to be held every second year, with entrants from all over the globe. As a whole perhaps the entries suggest a little too much direction toward common themes, so that thematics rather than visualization tends to dominate many of the drawings; yet there are many truly amazing renderings of imaginatively conceived worlds. I have a number of personal favourites but I select just a few for comment here.

The first is a drawing by Svytlana Feldyna of Poland (age unknown), entitled "Together," and one of the winning entries in 1997. A young girl in the bottom right quadrant is shown stitching the world's continents together and implicitly uniting its peoples, but--perhaps more interestingly--the drawing also bridges between grand synoptic vision and private, domestic activity. A great ball of wool at her feet provides the yarn of mental stitching, making me think of the interrelated tropes of knitting, sewing, stitching, threading, and fabrication that Eileen Barrett traces in Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse. [link14] There are gaps between Svytlana Feldyna and Virginia Woolf to be sure--of age, time, place, aesthetics, perception--but there is also the common thread of seeking the source of communal healing in the everyday. The second example was created by Yui Seito of Japan (13 years)--a winning entry from 1993 entitled "Green Land." In this image the continents are delicately and schematically etched as green leaves floating on the waters of the world, varying in size and shape like the different species of the genus tree yet conjointly expressive of the vulnerable ecological balance that keeps the living planet afloat. Again I am reminded of Virginia Woolf--this time of the leaves floating on the lily pond in Between the Acts, which Mrs. Swithin names Europe, India, Africa, and America, musing on her hope that life will continue elsewhere even if the leaf of her own country is destroyed in the impending war. But in Yui Seito's work, there is no geopolitical inscription of national boundaries like those in the partition of Africa maps or those underlying Mrs. Swithin's England in 1939; in his image, tiny national flags rest on the leaves like brightly coloured miniature butterflies--a decorative pattern of diversity that adds interest to the design. [link15] Difference plays on the surface, and the image begs us not to disturb the delicate fibres of the whole.

Globalization is not one thing, these images tell us, but they also tell us that the globe is a realm of endless connection. Once we move out of the bounded geopolitical, out of absolute space, a myriad of new geographical metaphors emerge to stimulate new imaginings of global space. We need these images to organize our observations, and happily new cartographic practices offer models for richer, more inclusive organization. But we need constantly to examine the literal ground on which these metaphors depend and perhaps also to resist too strong a reliance on the cartographic, no matter how interactive and multidimensional new mapping techniques become. To theorize the whole is a necessary and important exercise but the randomness of global flows also encompasses the individual, the empathetic, and the ethical--elements that must be written into global space as well. If the threat of a new geopolitical lies in laying claim to the globe as our economic or our informational territory, then it is the imaginative geographies of its myriad individuals that can restore the cognitive ecological balance with the views from other eyes.

Coda: I can propose no better ending than "Head, Ship, Tree" by R. M. Sisara Samanmali Ratnayabe, Age 15, Sri Lanka, a winner in the1993 Children's Map Competition. [link16]

Works Cited

Baucom, Ian. "Globalit, Inc.; or, the Cultural logic of Global Literary Studies." PMLA 116 (January 2001): 158-172.
Barrett, Eileen. "The Language of Fabric in To the Lighthouse. Approaches to Teaching To the Lighthouse. Ed. Beth Rigel Daugherty and Mary Beth Pringle. New York, MLA, 2001. 54-59.
Baudrillard, Jean. Selected Writings. Ed. Mark Poster. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1988.
Blewett, David. The Illustration of Robinson Crusoe, 1719-1920. Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe, 1995.
Blouet, Brian W. Geopolitics and Globalization in the Twentieth Century. London: Reaktion Books, 2001.
Brint, Michael. "The Politics of Identity and the Culture of Global Technology." Culture, Politics, and Nationalism in the Age of Globalization. Ed. Renéo Lukic and Michael Brint. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001. 3-15.
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Ed. C. R. A. Goonetilleke. Toronto: Broadview, 1995.
Darby, Philip. The Fiction of Imperialism: Reading Between International Relations and Postcolonialism. London: Cassell, 1998.
Defoe, Daniel. Serious Reflections During the Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, with his Vision of the Angelick World. Written by himself. London : Printed for W. Taylor, 1720.
Dirlik, Arif. "Historical Colonialism in Contemporary Perspective." Public Culture 14.3 (Fall 2002) 611-615.
Dorling, Daniel and David Fairbairn. Mapping: Ways of Representing the World. Edinburgh: Longman, 1997.
Falk, Dan. Universe on a T-Shirt: The Quest for the Theory of Everything. Toronto: Viking Canada, 2002.
Forster, E. M. A Room with a View. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1990.
Forster, E. M. Howards End. Ed Paul Armstrong. New York: Norton, 1998.
Friedman, Susan Stanford. Mappings: Feminism and the Cultural Geographies of Encounter. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1998.
GoGwilt, Chris. "The Geopolitical Image: Imperialism, Anarchism, and the Hypothesis of Culture in the Formation of Geopolitics." Modernism/Modernity 5.3 (1998) 49-70.
Mbembe, Achille. "At the Edge of the World: Boundaries, Territoriality, and Sovereignty in Africa." Public Culture 12: 259-284.
Rakecewitz, Philip. "Mapping Concepts" (Cartographier la pensée) Trans. Anne-Maria Boitumelo Makhulu. Public Culture 12.3 (2000): 703-706.
Richardson, Anthony, Frank Shillington, Ewa Stachlewska, Nonkqubela Silulwane and Maya Pfaff,. "Artificial Neural Networks in Marine Science." South African Network for Coastal and Oceanic Research Newsletter, Issue 164, August 2000.
Smith, Neil and Cindi Katz. "Grounding Metaphor: Towards a Spatialized Politics." Place and the Politics of Identity. Ed. Michael Keith and Steve Pile. London: Routledge, 1993. 67-83.
Smith, Nowell Charles and J.C. Maxwell Garnett. The Dawn of World-Order: An Introduction to the Study of the League of Nations. London: Oxford UP, 1932.
Woolf, Virginia. Between the Acts. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1941.

Remote Web Sites:

African Book Centre [link 6]
Amazon.com [link 4]
The Barbara Petchenik Children's Map Competition, archived in the Maps, Data and Government Information Centre at Carleton University Library [links 14, 15, 16]
Cuddy-Keane, M., ENGC63Y: Literature and Travel, University of Toronto-Scarborough [links 1, 13]
Dare On-Line [link 7]
Dodge, Martin and Rob Kitchin, Atlas of Cyberspace [link 9]
The Galloping Globe Gallery [links 3, 11]
The Lanman Map Collection, The Yale Map Collection, Yale University [link 2]
Lucca, Co., The Miniature Earth, supported by Sustainable Village [link 12]
NeuroDimension Incorporated [link 10]

Notes

#1 "Water promises to be to the 21st century what oil was to the 20th century: the precious commodity that determines the wealth of nations." Barlow and Clarke, "Who Owns Water?"
#2 See, for example, Chris GoGwilt, "The Geopolitical Image."
#3 This description is taken from the back cover.
#4 Richardson et al., "Artificial Neural Networks in Marine Science."
#5 Smith and Garnett, 9 and 10.