INTRODUCTION

    METHODOLOGY

    OBJECT_ANALYSIS

     COFFEE RITUAL

     COFFEEHOUSES

     Material Culture
     Coffee Dishes
     Coffeehouse Tokens
     Coffee Exoticism
     Coffee Eroticism
     Modern Versions
     The Modern Cafe
     The Coffee Shop

     ART OF DRINKING

     "CONCLUSION"

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

     HOMEPAGE

Witness the following description of an 18th Century coffeehouse:




Anonymous Interior of a London Coffee House, 1668. From Pim Reinders, Thera Wijsenbeek et al., Koffie in Nederland: Viereeuwen culturgeschiendenis, (Zutphen: Walberg Pers; Deft: Gemeente Musea Delft, 1994), 40.



Come with me, said my friend, and I will show you my favourite coffee house. Since you are a stranger in the town it will amuse you . . . As he was speaking, he reached the door of the coffee-house in question. The entry was dark, so that we were hard put to it not to stumble. Mounting a few steps, we made our way into a big room which was equipped in an old-fashioned way. There was a rabble going hither and thither, reminding me of a swarm of rats in a ruinous cheese-store. Some came, others went; some were scribbling, others were talking; some were drinking (coffee), some smoking, and some arguing; the whole place stank of tobacco like the cabin of a barge. On the corner of a long table, close by the armchair, was lying a Bible . . . Besides it were earthenware pitchers, long clay pipes, a little fire on the hearth, and over it the large coffee-pot. Beneath a small book-shelf, on which were bottles, cups, and an advertisement for a beautifier to improve the complexion, was hanging a parliamentary ordinance against drinking and the use of bad language. The walls were decorated with gilt frames, much as a smithy is decorated with horseshoes. In the frames were rarities; phials of yellowish elixir, favourite pills and hair tonics, packets of snuff, tooth-powder made of coffee-grounds, caramels and cough lozenges, all vaunted as infallible. These medicaments were supposed to be panaceas. Had not my friend told me that he had brought me to a coffee-house, I would have regarded the place as the big booth of a cheap-jack . . . When I had sat there for a while, and taken in my surroundings, I myself felt inclined for a cup of coffee. (Ned Ward, London Spy, quoted in Ellis, Penny Universities, 44-45.)10



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