As we have observed in 1.1., etymology is the search for the original word, and the principal connectors used in our corpus to express the ascending relationship between derived form and etymon are dirivatur/derivatur, dicitur, descendit, and certain prepositions, usually a, ab, de.
abutor commune apud antiquos [...] unde abusus et abusio unde abusitor -taris abusitatus [...] inde etiam abusive... (Papias).
Mansueo. sues. suevi [...] et inde mansuesco. scis (Aalma)
Item ab augeo hec autrix et hec auccio [...] unde hic auccionarius... (Hugutio).
Apart from a brief discussion of proper nouns and inflected forms, we do not feel that an analysis of unmarked words is useful here.
126.96.36.199.1. Proper nouns
Proper nouns in our corpus fall into the broad classifications of persons and places, and both can be further divided into actual/historical and mythical/literary names. In the 'people' category, biblical names are common, from Aaron to Zorobabel. Historical names include philosophers, emperors and warriors, among others, and mythical and legendary names include gods and heroes. Geographical names and, in many cases, their derivatives, are especially common. They include cities, provinces, regions and countries, rivers and mountains. Proper nouns also include the names of the months and the signs of the zodiac. Proper nouns are rarely qualified as such in Papias's Elementarium; in the Catholicon and its derivatives they are usually identified proprium nomen.
The large number of proper nouns in early compilations attests to their encyclopaedic nature. As dictionaries become more 'linguistic', the quantity of proper nouns is less. This trend is borne out by the number of proper nouns included in the macrostructure of our corpus. Using the section Aa- to Abs-, we find that in Papias (c.1050) there are twenty-six proper nouns, in the Catholicon (1286) there are eleven, in the Comprehensorium (late thirteenth or early fourteenth century) there are fifteen, and in manuscript A1 of the Aalma (late fourteenth century) there are five. In the DLV (first half of the fifteenth century) there is only one - an example of the way in which Le Ver reduced his nomenclature.
188.8.131.52.2. Inflected forms
Forms of lemmata in the earliest glossaries were those in which the lemma appeared in the source text. In Papias, inflected forms still sometimes occur, although verbs are usually in the infinitive, and nouns in the nominative singular. Lemmata only rarely include flexional suffixes. Beginning with the twelfth century, lemmata and sub-lemmata include the paradigm of inflections customarily found in dictionaries.
The inflected forms which most often occur are the third personal singular of the imperative mood of a verb: Fer .i. porta. imperativi modi (Comprehensorium), and the third person singular of an impersonal verb: exstat - il est. verbum impersonale (Ab5). The latter forms are frequent in Abavus but less so in Aalma.
In alphabetical-derivational dictionaries, an inflected form which coincides with a base form, irrespective of whether the two belong to the same family, may be treated in the latter's article:
SINE - preposition qui sert a l'ablatis - .i.
absque, ut: sine timore sans cremeur
Sine eciam est imperativus modus de sino, sinis... (DLV)
Compilers of medieval dictionaries were far from consistent in pointing out archaisms, foreign terms, common language, and the like. Nonetheless, there are indicators, particularly in the large collections, which inform the user about the properties of certain terms.
184.108.40.206.1. Temporal markers
Words which are not marked by a temporal indicator are assumed to be part of the lexicographer's vocabulary at the time he wrote the text. The quantities of citations found in all of the large collections may well support either contemporary or earlier use, but here we are concerned with the words selected by the author to serve as temporal markers (Wooldridge 1977: 87). The markers in our corpus almost invariably relate to grammatical status.
A past state of the language is marked antiqui or secundum antiquos, and current use (in contrast with the past) is marked secundum usum modernum, in usu moderno, or nos dicimus.
[...] Et dicit Priscianus quod acus quarte declinationis est, quod tam masculini quam feminini invenitur. In usu moderno est tantum feminini generis (s.v. ACUS) (Brito).
PERIURO .ras .ratum [...] nam dicimus deiero .ras et peiero .ras et hoc verum est secundum usum modernum, sed antiqui dicebant periuro .ras (DLV)
FATISCO .scis [...] antiqui dicebant: fatiscor .sceris, fessus sum, quod nos non dicimus (DLV)
Cum me sic dicebant et cum te quod nunc elegantius dicimus tecum mecum (Placidus Glossary)
A number of foreign words occur as entries in our corpus. They are most frequent in Papias, which has a substantial quantity of foreign proper nouns. Indeed, most of the foreign words in the Catholicon and in those dictionaries based on it, derive originally from Papias. Greek is the foreign language most often referred to in all the texts, and Hebrew ranks in second place. Syrian, Chaldean, Macedonian, Medean and Parthan are mentioned by Papias.
Lemmata of foreign origin are marked in two ways in our corpus. In the first method, the expressions interpretatur (< interpretatio - the explanation of a word in a different language) and dicitur are used. Foreign words may appear with or without an indication of the source language, and with or without stressing its opposition to Latin.
Abdenago lingua chaldaea interpretatur serviens taceo (Papias)
MALON grece, latine dicitur rotundum (DLV).
achas graece tristis (Papias)
Agios grece latine sanctus... (Catholicon)
manu adverbium admirantis apud Grecos vel Hebreos (A1)
fasmos. grece apparicion (A1)
lapes en grec ignorance ou laidure (A1)
Alietus. avis, quae gallice vocatur smerillum (Osbern).
MATER, matris - .i. genitrix mere; Greci matros dicuntur quod autem dicitur mater (DLV).
Eruca eruce. vers qui mengue les choux: chenille. vel est herba quedam gallice rue (A8)
Wooldridge (1977: 90) explains that, in principle, this category concerns particular vocabularies relating to the various areas of human activity, which may be called 'technical' vocabularies. The areas themselves are fairly easy to define and to organize in notional fields, but the vocabulary is much less so. If an activity is common or known to all members of a linguistic community, terms used to talk about it will belong to the common language. To use Wooldridge's example, everyone dresses himself, but not everyone makes his own clothes. The vocabulary relating to their fabrication will be more or less known to each speaker, and thus more or less technical. The part of the vocabulary which is not understood by non-makers of clothing will be the most technical.
John Balbi announced the inclusion of terms bearing on scientific and theological matters in his Preface to the Catholicon;  however, these words are not specially marked in the text. Not surprisingly, the largest semantic fields in our corpus, which is based mainly on the Catholicon, reflect medieval preoccupations: agriculture and husbandry, viniculture, domestic objects and animals, artisanat, mercantile, medicine, arms and warfare, feudalism and rank, religion and the Church. There is also a fairly large inventory of marine terms, including shipbuilding.
Technical words are not marked in any medieval dictionary, and it is difficult to differentiate between 'notional' and 'functional' membership in a particular vocabulary. Names of trades, for example, which are normally less technical than the tools or processes used in those trades, are presented on the same plane as the latter (Wooldridge 1977: 91). Tools whose use is reserved to a particular trade may be considered as technical words in our corpus. In the following examples, we find both equivalents and syntagms consisting of a generic term and a specific term:
BOLIS, bolidis - plommet a maronnier .i. massam plumbi quam naute submittere solent in mare ... (DLV)
Clistere, clisteris - clistere .i. instrumentum medicorum ... (s.v. CLISTERE) (DLV)
Galla. galle instrument a purger et appareillier cuirs (A1)
MALLEUS est instrumentum fabri quo malleat et cudit et producit ferrum dum calet (Brito)
Stylistic markers concern the level of language, and the markers most frequently used in our corpus are communiter, vulgo and vulgariter, which refer to a more popular level of language. In most cases, they refer to vulgar Latin:
Abactor est fur iumentorum et pecorum, quem vulgo abigeium vocant... (Isidore, 10)
Fimus. mi. stercus quod per agros facitur quod vulgo letamen dicitur (Comprehensorium)
Bageniosiades que vulgo dicuntur Maierica et Minorica (MPST).
Apotheca .the<ce> communiter dicitur espicherie gallice (s.v. APOTHECA) (DLV).
This class of marker relates to frequency of use and the markers most often found are non est in usu and raro invenitur:
Acero ras non est in usu. sed componitur exacero ras... (Comprehensorium).
ALPIS .pis - ab altus dicitur, sed raro invenitur in singulari sed pluraliter ALPES, alpium .i. alti montes hautes montaingnes (DLV).
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