As we have observed in 1.1., etymology is the search for the original word, and the principal connectors used in our corpus to express the ascending relationship between derived form and etymon are dirivatur/derivatur, dicitur, descendit, and certain prepositions, usually a, ab, de.

Derivation, on the other hand, is the descending relationship between a base word and a derived form. Derivatives in alphabetically-ordered dictionaries may precede or follow the root word in the nomenclature, as in the following example from Aalma manuscript A1. (It is apparent that full alphabetization was not always achieved.) Occasionally, derived forms appear as sub-entries in the articles of alphabetical dictionaries. They are frequently introduced by the adverbs unde and inde: In the Catholicon, an alphabetical-derivational dictionary, derivatives may be either separate entries or sub-entries. Since the articles are lengthy constructions, connectors are frequently (although not invariably) used to introduce sub-entries: In another alphabetical-derivational dictionary, the DLV, derivatives are organized more methodically. With few exceptions, derivatives are sub-entries of the root-word which is the entry. Entries are in alphabetical order and sub-entries are arranged according to Le Ver's plan (see Derivatives in dictionaries organized according to the derivational approach, i.e. Hugutio's Magnae derivationes and Osbern's Panormia, follow the entry in a lengthy string: Unmarked words

Apart from a brief discussion of proper nouns and inflected forms, we do not feel that an analysis of unmarked words is useful here. Proper nouns

Proper nouns in our corpus fall into the broad classifications of persons and places, and both can be further divided into actual/historical and mythical/literary names. In the 'people' category, biblical names are common, from Aaron to Zorobabel. Historical names include philosophers, emperors and warriors, among others, and mythical and legendary names include gods and heroes. Geographical names and, in many cases, their derivatives, are especially common. They include cities, provinces, regions and countries, rivers and mountains. Proper nouns also include the names of the months and the signs of the zodiac. Proper nouns are rarely qualified as such in Papias's Elementarium; in the Catholicon and its derivatives they are usually identified proprium nomen.

The large number of proper nouns in early compilations attests to their encyclopaedic nature. As dictionaries become more 'linguistic', the quantity of proper nouns is less. This trend is borne out by the number of proper nouns included in the macrostructure of our corpus. Using the section Aa- to Abs-, we find that in Papias (c.1050) there are twenty-six proper nouns, in the Catholicon (1286) there are eleven, in the Comprehensorium (late thirteenth or early fourteenth century) there are fifteen, and in manuscript A1 of the Aalma (late fourteenth century) there are five. In the DLV (first half of the fifteenth century) there is only one - an example of the way in which Le Ver reduced his nomenclature. Inflected forms

Forms of lemmata in the earliest glossaries were those in which the lemma appeared in the source text. In Papias, inflected forms still sometimes occur, although verbs are usually in the infinitive, and nouns in the nominative singular. Lemmata only rarely include flexional suffixes. Beginning with the twelfth century, lemmata and sub-lemmata include the paradigm of inflections customarily found in dictionaries.

The inflected forms which most often occur are the third personal singular of the imperative mood of a verb: Fer .i. porta. imperativi modi (Comprehensorium), and the third person singular of an impersonal verb: exstat - il est. verbum impersonale (Ab5). The latter forms are frequent in Abavus but less so in Aalma.

In alphabetical-derivational dictionaries, an inflected form which coincides with a base form, irrespective of whether the two belong to the same family, may be treated in the latter's article: Marked words: specialization of use

Compilers of medieval dictionaries were far from consistent in pointing out archaisms, foreign terms, common language, and the like. Nonetheless, there are indicators, particularly in the large collections, which inform the user about the properties of certain terms. Temporal markers

Words which are not marked by a temporal indicator are assumed to be part of the lexicographer's vocabulary at the time he wrote the text. The quantities of citations found in all of the large collections may well support either contemporary or earlier use, but here we are concerned with the words selected by the author to serve as temporal markers (Wooldridge 1977: 87). The markers in our corpus almost invariably relate to grammatical status.

A past state of the language is marked antiqui or secundum antiquos, and current use (in contrast with the past) is marked secundum usum modernum, in usu moderno, or nos dicimus.

Occasionally, nunc ... dicitur appears as a temporal marker: Spatio-linguistic markers

A number of foreign words occur as entries in our corpus. They are most frequent in Papias, which has a substantial quantity of foreign proper nouns. Indeed, most of the foreign words in the Catholicon and in those dictionaries based on it, derive originally from Papias. Greek is the foreign language most often referred to in all the texts, and Hebrew ranks in second place. Syrian, Chaldean, Macedonian, Medean and Parthan are mentioned by Papias.

Lemmata of foreign origin are marked in two ways in our corpus. In the first method, the expressions interpretatur (< interpretatio - the explanation of a word in a different language) and dicitur are used. Foreign words may appear with or without an indication of the source language, and with or without stressing its opposition to Latin.

In the second method of marking foreign lemmata, a connector is not used; the language of origin functions as the marker. The opposition to Latin may be implicit or explicit. In Aalma, the source language of foreign lemmata is identified in Latin where there is a Latin definition, but may be in Latin or French where there is a French definition: Language markers identify foreign words appearing in the microtext of many of the dictionaries: Occasionally, foreign words do not have a marker: Language markers also can identify Latin terms used by foreigners which differ from those in common use: French stands in the position of a second language in Latin-French glossaries and dictionaries, and its opposition to Latin is implicit in its status as the language of exit. However, it is sometimes marked in the early bilingual glossaries, as in this example from the Doctrinale of Alexander of Villedieu in ms. Cambridge, Trinity Coll. R.3.29, ff.137r-168r (Hunt 1991: I, 90): French forms in the glossary found on ff.34-35 of ms. Tours n° 789 (Delisle 1869) are preceded by ro. for romane, instead of the more common gall. or gallice. French forms are only occasionally marked in the Aalma dictionaries: and in MPST: They are marked slightly more often (169 occurrences) in DLV, where gallice may introduce a precise translation following a more general Latin definition (Merrilees 1991: 59): Socio-professional markers

Wooldridge (1977: 90) explains that, in principle, this category concerns particular vocabularies relating to the various areas of human activity, which may be called 'technical' vocabularies. The areas themselves are fairly easy to define and to organize in notional fields, but the vocabulary is much less so. If an activity is common or known to all members of a linguistic community, terms used to talk about it will belong to the common language. To use Wooldridge's example, everyone dresses himself, but not everyone makes his own clothes. The vocabulary relating to their fabrication will be more or less known to each speaker, and thus more or less technical. The part of the vocabulary which is not understood by non-makers of clothing will be the most technical.

John Balbi announced the inclusion of terms bearing on scientific and theological matters in his Preface to the Catholicon; [56] however, these words are not specially marked in the text. Not surprisingly, the largest semantic fields in our corpus, which is based mainly on the Catholicon, reflect medieval preoccupations: agriculture and husbandry, viniculture, domestic objects and animals, artisanat, mercantile, medicine, arms and warfare, feudalism and rank, religion and the Church. There is also a fairly large inventory of marine terms, including shipbuilding.

Technical words are not marked in any medieval dictionary, and it is difficult to differentiate between 'notional' and 'functional' membership in a particular vocabulary. Names of trades, for example, which are normally less technical than the tools or processes used in those trades, are presented on the same plane as the latter (Wooldridge 1977: 91). Tools whose use is reserved to a particular trade may be considered as technical words in our corpus. In the following examples, we find both equivalents and syntagms consisting of a generic term and a specific term: Stylistic markers

Stylistic markers concern the level of language, and the markers most frequently used in our corpus are communiter, vulgo and vulgariter, which refer to a more popular level of language. In most cases, they refer to vulgar Latin:

However, they may also refer to the French language: The word plebes also functions as a stylistic marker: Quantitative markers

This class of marker relates to frequency of use and the markers most often found are non est in usu and raro invenitur:

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