It is not uncommon to find definitions containing both languages, often expressing different meanings of the lemma:
thiara .are mitre vel pileum sacerdotale. chapiau de feutre (A1)
Fluctivagus .ga .gum vagatus par flos (A1)
LABERINTUS .tii idest perplexum edificium sic erat domus Dedali ou nulz qui y entre n'en scet issir (DLV)
The influence of Latin is inescapable in GGL. We have already remarked in 2.5.5. that Latin affects the ordering of the French entries. Its influence is even more noticeable in the number of syntagms and paraphrases, for which no single French equivalent is given: Mouche qui fait le miel - apes, apis; Areur de terres - arator oris.
The DLV is entirely different from the other lexica containing French forms. Although we have called it 'bilingual', the DLV should rather be called a Latin-Latin/French dictionary (Merrilees/Edwards 1989: 39). Latin lemmata are supported by a principally Latin metalanguage and glossed mainly by Latin definitions. French equivalents or definitions may or may not be included in individual entries, and French is not often used in the metalanguage (see 3.2.2.). However, the character and originality of French in DLV are far more important than its quantity. Rather than annex French forms mot-à-mot to Latin lemmata, Le Ver endeavours to translate the underlying concepts into the vernacular. Moreover, the quantity of neologisms and first attestations in the DLV gives ample evidence of Le Ver's linguistic awareness (id. 1989: 47f.; Merrilees 1994a: xxvi f.).
The principal importance of the French forms in bilingual lexica lies not in their quantity but in their variety, as they record Middle French in the fourteenth and fifteenth century. To use just one example:
|murmurare||murmurer||Ab4 & Ab5|
For murmur, murmuris we find murmuremens, murmurement, noise, noaise, and for murmurare we find murmurer and noaiser.
There is a greater quantity of metalanguage in the Aalma series, although the extent varies among the manuscripts. Latin, of course, is its primary language but there are some examples of the use of French. In MPST the metalanguage is entirely in Latin, although the quantity is greater in MP than in ST. The most extensive metalanguage is found in DLV, with a small but important percentage of it in French.
The definitional connectors vel and aut found in Abavus, are generally replaced by ou in the later collections. As a result, ou fills two functions: it is part of the language of definition, e.g. fasceuma. me. cloture de bois. palis environ chastiaus ou citez (A1), or it is part of the metalanguage, e.g. faselus. li. petite nef ou une yle ou une maniere de lun (A1). Other French definitional connectors are signifie, aussi and vault autant a dire:
forus. fori signifie plusseurs choses. pertuis marchés ou lieux ou l'en foule la vendenge ou lieux ou l'en traittes les causes (A1)
Luite - gimnas .nadis et segnefie aussi course, barres (GGL)
SECUS. preposition servans a l'accusatis ... (DLV)
Farao vel Pharao .onis propre non d'un roy d'Egipte. et est appellatis (A1)
hinnitus. tus. tui. henissemens. et doivent estre escript hinnio et hinnitus par deux n (A1)
The late fifteenth- and early sixteenth-century lexicographer, who was no longer necessarily a cleric, stood at a turning-point in European technological and intellectual history. His legacy from the Middle Ages included presentation techniques which would adapt well to printing,  but also included a nomenclature dating from the thirteenth century and a microstructure imbued with scholasticism, neither of which was in accord with humanist thought. The creator of a bilingual dictionary inherited as well a framework based entirely on Latin, which would hamper efforts to respond to growing nationalism through creation of dictionaries focused on vernacular languages. These vestiges of medieval Latin lexicography influenced European dictionary-making for at least a century.
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