GKW (VI, 258) notes that editions of the CA printed at Rouen and Paris after 1492 differ from the rest of the editions through addition of a prologue, addition of an article concerning the spelling of the word Christus, and rearrangement of articles in the letter 'Z'. GKW also remarks that the colophon to some of these later editions, claiming the lexica of Papias, Hugutio and other authors as sources, is modelled on that of another, larger work, the Vocabularius familiaris et compendiosus. Lindemann (1994: 223) speaks of twenty-four known editions of the CA, and divides them into several categories according to title and colophon.
Based on external and internal evidence, we have divided the editions of the CA into two series: Series 1 comprises those printed in Paris, Geneva and Lyons between c.1482 and c.1508, and Series 2 includes those printed in Rouen and Paris from 1492 on.
To date we have identified twenty-eight editions  by twenty-one printers. Even allowing only a modest production of each edition,  there must have been at one time several thousand copies in circulation, yet so far we have found nineteenth- and twentieth-century references to only thirty-two copies.  Three of the copies referred to are now missing, and there are only fragments of two pages of a fourth. There are, therefore, only twenty-eight complete (or nearly complete - some copies are imperfect, lacking certain quires) remaining copies of the CA: twenty-seven in Europe and one in North America.
The CA is a small dictionary, with just over 13,000 entries, usually printed in-quarto. Thus, it was easily portable, and the scanty number of surviving copies points out its popularity; many copies were doubtless 'used to death'. The dictionary had a didactic purpose, as had its manuscript predecessor, the Aalma glossary (see 2.5.3.). The CA's objective is outlined in the prologue to the texts in Series 2 (see 22.214.171.124.).
Our research in 4.1. and 4.2. is based on examination, either directly or on microfilm, of the title page, preliminary pages, colophon and printer's plaque (where these elements exist) of twenty-seven of the remaining copies of the CA.
Roques' conclusion that A8 is the source for the CA is absolutely correct, although apparently he had not seen any edition earlier than 1485. The physical correspondence in page layout between A8 and Caillaut's first edition is explored in 126.96.36.199.
The compiler of A8 is clearly identified in the colophon as Antoine Caillaut:
A8 is rather carelessly compiled. The script is untidy, there are many spelling errors in both Latin and French, and large sections are out of alphabetical order (see example in 188.8.131.52.2.). There are also layout errors such as two entries on one line, copying errors such as two articles combined in one, and a number of faulty readings. Some mistakes were corrected in time by various printers, beginning with Caillaut himself; other persisted throughout the life of the dictionary. In all editions an absurd reading (pointed out by Merrilees 1990: 290) is that one of the definitions for Dactilus is the French word miel. It seems certain that this is a misreading of anel. The correct spelling appears in several other Aalma manuscripts, but the identical error occurs only in A8:
|Dactilus li date fructus palme vel pes metrificandi ou miel||m|
Morin added a substantial quantity of new material to Caillaut's first edition to produce a revised dictionary which became the genesis for Series 2. He added or substituted new French terms in many existing articles, and he added a quantity of new articles. Through comparison with VFC it is clear that this text is the source of many of the additions to the CA.
Additions and substitutions occur throughout the text:
Exhibit 30: Comparison of lemmata in Catholicum abbreviatum
Vocabularius familiaris et compendiosus and Catholicon abbreviatum 1492
|CA c.1482||VFC c.1490||CA 1492|
|1. Changes in French forms.|
|Aluta te. alene ou cordovan||Aluta .te cordoven, cuir...||Aluta/te. cordoven, cuir|
|Amentum ti. la courroie ou le lacet qui est au millieu du javelot ou du glaive||Amentum .ti lachet qui est loyé au milieu du dart pour mieulx darder...||Amentum/ti. la couroie ou lacet qui est au milieu du dart ou du glaive pour mieulx darder|
|Apto tas avi atum. apparillier ou affietier, enformer ou essayer||Apto .as appareiller, ordener, faire convenable aptum facere...||Apto/as/avi/atu m. appareiller/ordener/faire convenable. aptum facere|
|2. New articles.|
|-||Amatorius .a .um d'amour||Amatorius/a/um. d'amour|
|-||Anguillaris et hoc .re d'anguille ut: cibus anguillaris||Anguillaris et hoc re. d'anguille. ut cibus anguillaris|
|-||Anguillarium .rii lieu ou les anguilles sont||Aguillarium <sic>/illarii. le lieu ou les anguilles sont|
but it is in the letter 'Z' that the greatest concentration of changes occurs. Morin lifted all of the articles beginning with 'Z' from the VFC and substituted them, with only minor changes, for the articles beginning with 'Z' in Series 1. A comparison of lemmata in the letter 'Z' in the three texts is attached as Appendix 4.
Exhibit 31 illustrates the complicated path as we believe it to be at the present time. Series 1 begins in Paris c.1482, then goes on to Geneva, and ends in Lyons c.1508. Series 2 begins in Rouen in 1492 and flows in two streams - one through Rouen ending c.1519, and the other through Paris, ending in the mid-1520s. Title pages from fourteen editions of the CA are attached as Appendix 5; Section C of the Bibliography lists the locations of existing copies; and a summary of the sigla we have attached to the editions is shown here.
|Series 1||Series 2|
|C1||=||Caillaut c.1482||MM||=||Morin 1492|
|C2||=||Caillaut c.1482-84||UP||=||Unknown, Paris c.1492-96|
|C3||=||Caillaut c.1482-84||M1||=||Morand 1497/98|
|V||=||Vérard 1485/86||M2||=||Morand c.1500|
|G1||=||Garbin c.1485||LN||=||Le Noir 1497|
|G2||=||Garbin c.1487||T1||=||Tréperel 1499|
|HU||=||Huss 1489/90||T2||=||Tréperel c.1500|
|UL1||=||Unknown, Lyons c.1490||B||=||de la Barre 1510|
|S||=||Schultis c.1495||HE||=||Hérouf c.1520-28|
|HA||=||Havard 1499/1500||LB||=||Le Bourgeois 1497/98|
|DV||=||de Vingle c.1500||HO||=||Hostingue c.1511-13|
|UL2||=||Unknown, Lyons c.1508||GA||=||Gaultier 1519|
An interesting aspect of the diagram in Exhibit 31 is that it also reflects the spread of printing in the three French cities. Paris was the first to receive the new technology - in 1470, and Lyons was the second - shortly after that date, while Rouen got its first printer in 1487.
|Exhibit 31: Catholicon abbreviatum: Filiation of the Editions|
The text duplicates virtually every error and inconsistency in the manuscript. Plate 1 and Plate 2 reproduce, respectively, folio 2r of A8 and folio a.ii.r of C1. Identical errors occur on line 7 of both pages: two articles occupy one line, and the word ael is omitted from one of the definitions in both manuscript and print.
Abavus avi. tiers <ael> m. Abbas abbe m
Plate 3 compares the colophon in the manuscript (upper half of the page) with that in the printed edition. They are clearly identical, even to the errors in orthography.
Some of the mistakes are corrected in the second edition, and still others in the third. While we can easily imagine that Caillaut might have corrected obvious faults in the manuscript before first setting it in print, we feel it is illogical to suppose that, after having printed two editions with many corrections, he printed a third as late as 1492 with all of the original errors intact. 184.108.40.206. Caillaut c.1482-1484 (C2) The title page is missing from the only known copy of Caillaut's second edition, which must have followed the first printing fairly closely. The exact date is not known but is generally accepted to be c.1482-1484.
The colophon, which is very brief and does not mention Caillaut, now notes the inclusion of French translations:
Printing of the CA passed into the hands of another Parisian printer, before moving to Geneva and Lyons.
V is the first dated printing of the CA, and also the first with a French colophon:
Vérard's edition, which was the last CA of Series 1 printed in Paris, was soon copied in Geneva.
[Next] -- [Table of Contents]