6.0. Vocabularius Nebrissensis/Epithoma Vocabulorum

The extensive writings of the Spanish grammarian and humanist, Aelio Antonio de Nebrija, include a Latin-Spanish dictionary,  [83] printed at Salamanca in 1492. The Lexico o diccionario latino-español was not the first bilingual dictionary printed in Spain (in 1490 Alfonso Fernández de Palencia published the Universal Vocabulario en latin y en Romance, which is directly based on Papias), but it is a highly original work. In his preface to the facsimile edition of the Lexicon (Barcelona, 1979) Germán Colón demonstrates that, although Nebrija's sources are not yet precisely determined, his dictionary is not slavishly copied from earlier compilations.  [84]

Nebrija's influence was felt in Spanish lexicography until the eighteenth century, and his lexicographical heritage extended throughout Europe for at least two centuries, although it was not generally acknowledged (Lépinette 1992: 228).  [85] One of the earliest adaptations of the Lexicon is a Latin-Catalan/Catalan-Latin dictionary entitled Vocabularius Aelij Antonij Nebrissensis, in which Nebrija's Spanish terms are replaced by Catalan terms. This work, apparently based on the 1506 (Seville) edition of the Lexicon, was translated and edited by Gabriel Busa, a monk from the Augustinian monastery in Barcelona, and first printed in 1507.

Busa respected the integrity of Nebrija's work: he did not add entries to the nomenclature and he systematically substituted a Catalan term for a Spanish term in the microstructure. The only modification is the occasional appearance of a Catalan term for a Latin lemma which either is not translated in the Lexicon or has a Latin equivalent (Lépinette 1992: 230).

6.1. Sources of the Vocabularius nebrissensis/Epithoma vocabulorum (VN/EV)

Beaulieux (1904: 374, 388) notes the existence of a series of Latin-French dictionaries under the names of "Antonius Nebrissensis (Aelius)" and "Guilelmus Monachus de Villadei". These dictionaries are the result of an adaptation by an unknown French translator of Busa's Latin-Catalan adaptation of Nebrija's Lexicon.

6.1.1. Vocabularius Aelij Antonij Nebrissensis

As we have noted above, the Latin macrostructure of Nebrija's Lexicon (Latin-Spanish) and Busa's Vocabularius (Latin-Catalan) is identical. Busa did not eliminate entries from or add entries to Nebrija's work; he restricted his efforts to translating the Spanish terms in Catalan. Exhibit 33 (based on data in Lépinette 1992: 237) illustrates similarities in French and Catalan glosses which tend to confirm that Catalan rather than Spanish influenced the choice of French equivalents by the unknown author of the VN.

Exhibit 33: Comparison of glosses in Lexicon 1492, Busa 1507 and VN 1511
Lemmata Lexicon 1492 Busa 1507 VN 1511
a) Morphological similarities
Asoratum pavimento de azulejos paviment de raioletes pintades pavement painture
Hyosciamos Veleño erba erba mandragora herba mandragore
Neurodes acelga silvestre Bleda silvestre blete silvestre
Nicto. is Gañir el can [...] glapir lo ca [...] glapir [...] iaper
Nymbus, vitreus redoma de vidro ampolla de vidre ampoulle de voirre
Notesco anochecer vesprir envesprir [...]
Nape nombre de perro en ovidio nom de gos en lo ovodi nom de gos en ovide
b) Addition of details
Nauplius cierto pescado per palomida peix ung poisson palomede
Nebula niebla niebla. la neula del temps vapeur comme fumeur en terre ou deaues montant en hault: pour la nue du tempos ponitur
c) Omission of details
Acras el guadapero, arbol silvestre arbre silvestre arbre salvaige
d) Aberrant translations (calques)
Abdomen por la ijada gruessa del pescado Illada grassa del peix Isle ou croit la poi
Acapnus por eosa sin homo cosa sin fum chose sans fon
Zamolsis siervo de pithagoras filosofo catiu de pitagoras filosof filz de pitagoras: crestien

Lépinette (1992: 238) notes that the lemmata in d) above are absent from the Catholicon, and surmises that when the author of VN did not know the French translation for a Catalan term, and the lemma was not included in a text to which he could refer, he often did not eliminate the term from his own nomenclature but substituted a calque of the Catalan form. (It seems certain that his understanding of Catalan was limited.)

From a comparison of 587 entries in four samples, Lépinette (1992: 240) calculates that additions to the macrostructure of the VN which do not appear in Busa or Nebrija amount to roughly ten percent. of VN's macrostructure. A large number are drawn from the Catholicon, Papias and the Vocabularius breviloquus (id. 1992: Annexe, 255). Many of the additions are linked to religion, which is not surprising, since the author intended his work primarily for use by preachers. This tendency is particularly noticeable in articles which retain Busa's traductive structure:

6.1.2. Vocabularius familiaris et compendiosus

Lépinette (1992: 248) admits that there are evidently other sources which she has not discovered. We believe that one of these other sources is the Vocabularius familiaris et compendiosus (VFC), the Latin-French dictionary discussed in 5.0. Appendix 6 sets out the lemmata beginning with 'Z' in VFC, Busa 1507 and VN 1517. The most striking aspects are the expansion in the macrostructure of VN and the correspondence in lemmata between VFC and VN.

It seems that the compiler of VN took large sections alternately from Busa and from VFC (in much the same way as the compiler of MPST took material alternately from Papias and the Catholicon), and combined them in second-letter alphabetical order. Exhibit 34 shows that articles beginning with 'Z' which are drawn from VFC tend to fall into three categories:

Exhibit 34: Comparison of glosses in Vocabularius familiaris et compendiosus, Busa 1507 and VN 1517
VFC Busa 1507 VN 1517
a) Articles are entirely new.
Zaberna .ne, Zabiteria, Zabarra vel Zabarca est locus ubi ponuntur vestes vel libri vel quodlibet aliud comme huche, aumaire ou cofre - Zaberna e. Zabiteria. Zabara vel Zabrica pour le lieu a mettre livres, robes ou autre choses
Zabulus vel Zabulon .i. contrarius vel transgressor, ipse enim est diabolus unde Zabulinus .na .num de diable et Zabuligena .ne filz de diable, de contraire ou de transgresseur .i. zabulo genitus - Zabulus vel Zabulon .i. contrarius vel transgressor et ponitur pro diabolo. unde Zabulinus a. um. de diable
b) All articles belonging to a particular family from both texts are included.
- Zeta. e. edifici era axicom ximinea
Zetecula. e. aquell edifici petit
Zeta. la ultima letra del a.b.c
Zeta e. ung certain edifice
Zetecula e. tel petit edifice
Zeta etiam la derniere lettre de a.b.c.z.
Zeta .te maison ou chambre conclavis, secessus et invenitur in passione sancti Thome zetas hiemales et zetas estivales - secundum Papiam zetas hiemales dicimus domus quas calidas facit subducta flama, gallice estuves et zetas estivales dicimus esse domus quas frigidas facit subducta aqua chambre maison a refroidier - Zeta e. maison ou chambre
Zeta hiemalis. pour les estuves
Zeta estivalis. lieu frais et moyte
c) Articles from VFC are substituted for those of the same family in Busa.
Zelotipus .pa .pum envieux, souspeconneux ou jaloux comme de sa femme ou femme de son mari .i. zelo plenus, invidiosus vel suspiciosus jalous ou jalouse - Zelotipia .tipie jalousie, envie, suspicion et dicuntur a zelus .li
Zelotipo .pas .i. invidere vel suspicionem habere et potest poni transitive ut: iste zelotipat uxorem suam .i. habet suspicionem de ea
Zelor .aris .atus sum vel fui .ari - amare aimer .i. zelare - Zelatus .ta .um invidit vel amavit
Zelo .as .tum aimer ou avoir envie amare vel invidere, ut in Psalmo: zelavi super iniquos
Zelosus .sa .sum - zelo plenus comparatur amoureux ou plain d'envie ou jalous proprie quod et zelotes dicitur - Zelotes .tis idem, emulator jalous
Zelus .li .lo envie ou amour ou ferveur, bonne ou male accipitur in utroque
Zelotipus. i. per lo gelos
Zelotypa. e. la gelosa
Zelotypia. e. per la gelosia
Zelus. i. per gelosia
Zelor. aris. per tenir gelosia
Zelo. as. avi. per allo mateix
Zelotipus a. um. envieux suspectionneux ou jaloux: comme l'homme de femme vel econverso
Zelotipia e. jalousie: envie: suspicion
Zelotipo as. envier: suspicionner. potest enim poni transitive ut iste zelotipat uxorem suam il a suspicion de sa femme
Zelor aris. aymer: zeler: ou envier
Zelo as. aymer ou avoir envie zelavi super iniquos extra
Zelosus a. um. amoureux: ou plain d'envie ou jaloux
Zelotes tis. idem jaloux
Zelus i. ferveur bonne ou mauvaise in utramque partem accipi potest. amour vehement: ou envie: ou jalousie

We have considered the possibility that the source of the articles in letter-section 'Z' might be an edition from Series 2 of the Catholicon abbreviatum,  [86] because of the close similarity of this section in VFC and Series 2 of the CA (see 4.1.2.). However, we have concluded that this explanation is unlikely since there is at least one instance in which the article in the VN corresponds to that in the VFC but not to that in the CA:

6.1.3. Catholicon abbreviatum

Lépinette (1992: 244) notes that the French translations in the VN/EV do not seem to be drawn from Latin-French lexica. She bases her conclusion (with which we agree) on comparison with Aalma, MP (the part published in Nobel 1986), and four editions of the CA.

There is one area, however, where it is possible that the CA made a modest contribution. Guillaume Le Moine, adapter of the series entitled Epithoma vocabulorum which was printed at Caen c.1529 by the firm of Michael Angier, concludes his title with a statement that he has added information about the gender of nouns and verbs (see 6.2.). Le Moine's method is to use a system of abbreviations set against the right-hand column margin. These are the same signs used in the CA and they are located in the same place (both the abbreviations and the position are inherited by the CA from Aalma).

A likely direct connection between the two dictionaries lies in the fact that Michael Angier printed an edition of the CA for Laurent Hostingue c.1511-1512 (see 4.2.19.). It is not unreasonable to suppose that Guillaume Le Moine had seen a copy of Angier's edition.

6.1.4. Dictionarium of Ambrogio Calepino

The title of the Epithoma vocabulorum (EV) also contains a list of sources which Le Moine claims to have used to augment and correct his base text (the VN). Calepino's name is at the top of the list and is referred to again in the dedication. A brief comparison of VN and EV indicates that the quantity of additions to the nomenclature of the latter is not large, and it seems unlikely that Le Moine actually drew on very many of the authorities he names. However, there is a possibility that he did take some material from the Dictionarium of Ambrogio Calepino.

The Augustinian Ambrosius Calepinus, or Ambrogio Calepino (1440-1510) spent some thirty years writing his encyclopaedic Dictionarium (Labarre 1975: 7). It was first published at Reggio nell'Emilia in 1502, and more than two hundred editions of it were printed up to 1799. The Dictionarium's long life may be attributed to its later polyglot character. A large number of Latin versions printed in the early part of the sixteenth century already contained Greek equivalents for many Latin words; then, beginning in the 1540s, new languages were added, with some editions containing as many as eight languages. Depending on the country of publication, all modern European languages, as well as Greek and Hebrew, appeared in the Dictionarium at one time or another (id. 1975: 7).

The following exhibit compares some lemmata added by Le Moine to his Epithoma vocabulorum, with the same or similar words in Calepino:

Exhibit 35: Comparison of Selected Lemmata in Calepino's Dictionarium
and Epithoma vocabulorum 1529 (VN/EV8)
Dictionarium VN/EV
¶ Malacia ae. mollicia cum maris fluctus omnino quiescunt & languent...
Malacia e.: molesse
¶ Mammotreptus quod significet Aug. in interpretatione psal. declarat. Si eum inquit quaeris imitari & ex illo pendere adhuc lacte vis nutrire & fies mammotreptus quales dicuntur pueri qui diu sugunt quod non decet...
Mammotreptus: qui tette encor. m.
¶ Mandatarius cui dantur mandata peragenda.
Mandatorius. a. um: a qui on mande. o.
¶ Mansuetarii. qui feras mansuefaciunt.
Mansuetarius a. um.: aprivoise. o.
¶ Mastigophorus flagelliser servus abo aliis saepius casus: vel caedi dignus.
Mastigophorus a. um.: batais.
¶ Mastos [...] sed proprie animalium. latine mamma.
Mastas: mamelle. gre.
¶ Mastuprari est manu tractando virilia run veneream peragere...
Mastupro as: faire villenie de sa main
¶ Matta storea & teges: quam fit cannabi lino iunco palma sirpo aut sparto.
Matta e: natte idem quod storea.
¶ Mazonomum pe. cor. graeca dictio qua lanx significatur ad ferenda obsonia in mensam.
Mazonomum: plat ou escuelle. n.

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