Looking first at Latin monolingual dictionaries, we observe that most of the common prepositions and conjunctions are included in the Vocabularius breviloquus, in the section which Reuchlin calls Indeclinabilia. Pronouns are included under Nomina. Conjunctions, prepositions and pronouns are well-represented in Calepino's Dictionarium, where each part of speech is identified and then illustrated by several examples of the use of the word.
The first of the bilingual dictionaries, the Catholicon abbreviatum, is the printed version of Aalma, and grammatical words are present in its nomenclature in the same proportion as in the manuscripts (see 184.108.40.206.); that is, most prepositions are included, fewer conjunctions, and still fewer pronouns. The Vocabularius familiaris et compendiosus contains all of the common prepositions and conjunctions, and most of the pronouns, in just the same way as its close relative, the Dictionarius of Firmin Le Ver.
The articles containing grammatical words in Vocabularius nebrissensis are similar to those in CA: identification of the part of speech in Latin or French, followed by a short French definition:
At coniunction adversative mays. (VN3)
All common grammatical words are found in Estienne's Thesaurus and DLG. The part of speech is identified, followed by examples, some of them with French translations. The examples are set one under the other, rather than one after the other as in Calepino.
Since the DFL of 1539 does not contain grammatical and similar information, grammatical words are not identified. Prepositions include: Du, En, Pour, etc. and conjunctions include: Et, Car, Mais, and so on. Definite articles do not appear in the nomenclature of the DFL although they are included in some entries, for example, L'esté, Le siege de l'homme. Brandon (1904: 67) explains that the article is not prefixed to the noun to identify the gender, but rather because these nouns were most commonly encountered with one article or another. The indefinite article, Ung, on the other hand, does have entry status.
A large number of pronouns occur as entries in DFL 1539, including: Ce, Ceci, Celuy, Ceste, Cestuy, Dont, Je, Luy, Mien, Mon, Moy, Nostre, Nous, Que, Quel, Quelque, Sien, Soy, Toy, Toymesme, Vostre, Vous, etc.
The Thesaurus and DLG contain the six prefixes which in compositione solum reperiuntur (DLG), that is, am, con, di, dis, re and se, as well as the enclitic suffixes met, ne, ve. Each is followed by examples of use, supported by citations.
In both the Latin and the Latin-French dictionaries in our corpus, free-standing Latin prepositions such as ante, circum and extra, are used in composition as prefixes:
Many compounds have entry status in alphabetical order in the CA and the VN/EV, but they are rarely identified as such:
Monosyllabus a. u. dune syllabe (VN3)
Heredito .tas [...] componuntur Coheredo .das et Coheredito .tas, Exheredo .das et Exheredito .tas (VFC)
¶ Servo as. [...] Conservo. Observo. Preservo. Reservo. (Calepino).
¶ Macio as. macrum facio. Cuius compositum est emacio... (Calepino)
Macio macias maciare, Macrum facere. à quo EMACIO. Vide loco suo. (T1531)
Derivatives in the alphabetical dictionaries, the CA, VFC, VN/EV and Calepino, usually have separate entry status although, as we have seen, traces of earlier family relationships often persist in the ordering. Occasionally in the CA and VN/EV, and more frequently in VFC, derivatives occur within articles as sub-lemmata, and are commonly introduced by inde or unde.
Lotrix .cis [...] unde Lavatus .ta .tum et Lavatio .onis (VFC)
¶ Equester ab eques fit: ... (Calepino)
¶ Obdo is. ex ob & do. (Calepino)
Proper nouns, identifying both places and people, are found only occasionally in VFC, but somewhat more often in CA, usually with their derivatives, as in the following example from UL1:
Affricanus affricana affricanum. celuy qui est d'affrique o
Azana: une region de Ethiopie. (VN3)
220.127.116.11. Marked words
Markers such as we discussed in 18.104.22.168. are found, in varying quantities, in the texts in our corpus which were printed before Estienne. They occur much less frequently in his work.
22.214.171.124.1. Temporal markers
In VFC and Calepino, the temporal markers are secundum usum modernum, secundum antiquos, non est in usu:
Lotrix .cis lavendiere et scias quod lavo .as facit lotum secundum usum modernum; invenitur etiam lautum et lavatum unde Lavatus .ta .tum et Lavatio .onis secundum antiquos (VFC)
¶ Lato as. latum facio: quamvis non sit in usu ... (Calepino)
126.96.36.199.2. Spatio-linguistic markers
The nomenclature of most of the dictionaries in our corpus contains a large quantity of lemmata of foreign origin. The connectors interpretatur and dicitur are often used and the languages of entry and exit may or may not be identified:
Adonay est nomen dei: et est indeclinabile. et interpretatur dominus (UL1)
Brunda grece, latine cornu dicitur vel caput cervi (VFC)
Mithos interpretatur fabula. (VN3)
¶ Abba per geminum bb: Syra dictio est: Latine dicitur pater... (Calepino)
Ophthalmos Graece, Latine dicitur oculus (DLG)
French forms are marked occasionally in CA, VFC and VN/EV:
Modius etiam vel modiolus est lignum grossum in rota: galice moyeul de roe. (VN3)
Une iatte une sibylle de pressoir, ou semblable. Lugdunenses dicunt, Une conche (s.v. Concha) (T1531)
Gallico proverbio dicitur, Avoir deux cordes tendues en son arc (s.v. Utor) (T1531)
As we have explained in 188.8.131.52.3., technical words were not specifically marked in dictionaries of this period. The following terms may be considered 'technical':
Poultre. Une piece de bois en edifice qu'on dict proprement ung tref ou poultre... (DFL)
Stylistic markers used in our corpus refer to vulgar or popular equivalents for Latin words. They may involve Latin terms:
Aquariolus, huius aquarioli m.g. pen. corr. Festus, Aquarioli dicebantur mulierum impudicarum sordidi asseclae. Hos praeposita litera gallorum vulgus Macquereaux appellat. (DLG)
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