Notes: Part B

73. See, for example, J.W. Adamson, "The Extent of Literacy in England in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries: Notes and Conjectures", The Library, 4th series, X, 1929-30, 103-193; H.S. Bennett, English Books & Readers, 1475 to 1557, Cambridge: CUP, 1952; E.L. Eisenstein, The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge: CUP, 1983, 31-35.

74. We refer to 'editions' for the sake of convenience. We must stress, however, that editions in the modern sense of the word did not yet exist. Each page of every copy was pulled off the press separately, and it is not uncommon to find changes from one copy to another of the same 'edition'.

75. Thibaudeau (1921: 88) estimates an average printing of 300 copies.

76. There are some bibliographical errors.

77. In private correspondence with the Newberry Library, Chicago, July 27, 1937.

78. In response to our request for a microfilm of this edition, we are advised by the Service de la reproduction de la Bibliothèque nationale that it is not able to grant it because the copy is too tightly bound to permit reproduction in any form.

79. We do not have a copy of the title page of HE, or of any other part of the text. The Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève advises that the book is too fragile to permit reproduction by any means.

80. It will be seen from the copy of the title page that the red lines were lost in the reproduction on microfilm.

81. By Professor B.S. Merrilees and Mr. W. Edwards, with the collaboration of Dr. J. Monfrin.

82. We are indebted to our colleague, Mr. William Edwards, for sharing the unpublished results of his current research.

83. Nebrija's dictionary has somewhat the character of an encyclopaedia, due to the fact that it contains a very large number of proper nouns and their descriptions.

84. E. Antonio de Nebrija, 1492. El diccionario latino-español. Salamanca. Ed. facsimilar con un estudio preliminar de Germán Colón y Amadeu-J. Soberanas, Barcelona: Puvill-Editor, 1979. Cited in Lépinette 1992: 228f.

85. Also see Wooldridge 1989b.

86. Lindemann (1994: 251f) compares the last thirteen entries of VN 1511 with Nebrija 1492, CA 1492 (MM) and Nebrija 1506, without apparently regarding the CA as a possible source for some of them.

87. Cited in Lépinette 1992: 234f.

88. On Estienne's life, work and influence, see especially Armstrong 1986, Brandon 1904, Lindemann 1994: IV and VI, Starnes 1965 and Wooldridge 1977, 1978.

89. Brandon (1904: 6) believes it more likely that Robert Estienne was born in 1498.

90. Archbishop of Toledo, Primate of Spain, and founder of a University at Alcalá.

91. Starnes (1963: 16) cites the entry of J.-Ch. Brunet, Manuel du libraire et de l'amateur de livres, t.I, 241, for the first edition, which gives a date of 1514-17.

92. Complutum was the former name of Alcalá.

93. Preface to Thesaurus 1531: "[...] Triennium est, aut eo amplius, cum me complures efflagitabant, ut Calepini dictionarium, iuxta posteriorem ipsius authoris recognitionem, suae integritati restituerem:...

94. Preface to Thesaurus 1531: "[...] tanta ubique depravatio, tantum (ut ita dicam) chaos & rerum omnium confusio, ...

95. See Brandon 1904: 36.

96. Preface to Thesaurus 1536: "[...] Tantum illa quae et in promptu et sine circumloquutione occurrerunt, non parem multa consulto praeter mittentes, adiicimus: quae latius multo, ac fusius suo quoque loco, adhibitis prius in consilium viris doctis, in Latino-Gallico nostro dictionario, a nobis summo studio parique diligentia explicabuntur..."

97. Wooldridge (1977: 23, n. 16 and n. 17) advises that of 49 bilingual items on the first page of the letter 'T' of DLG 1538, 43 are found in DFL 1539; and of 67 bilingual items on the first page of the letter 'T' of DFL 1539, 63 come from DLG 1538.

98. Preface to DFL 1539: "Pour ce que la profession de nostr'art nous enhorte a faire tousiours quelque chose qui soit utile en general a tous ceulx qui entendent au faict des lettres: ou pour le moins duisant aux apprentiz pour lesquelz il fault d'autant plus soigner, qu'ilz ont greigneur besoing de secours, que ceulx qui ont acquiz quelque ruze, et peuvent d'eulx mesmes, sans l'aide d'autruy, passer par les destroictz de la langue Latine: A ceste cause apres avoir mis en lumiere le grand Thresor d'icelle langue, lequel peult servir a toutes gens de quelque hault scavoir qu'ilz soyent garniz: nous avons mis cueur & entente au soulagement de la ieunesse Francoise, qui est sur son commencement & bachelage de literature. Si leur avons faict deux livres: L'ung commenceant par les motz Latins deschiffrez en Francois: qui fut publie des l'annee precedente. L'autre est cestuy cy qui va prenant les motz de la langue Francoise, les mettant apres en Latin tout au plus pres qu'il s'est peu faire."

99. "[...] Ut autem istud quod a lectore in libro isto quaeritur facilius inveniatur, posui vocabula secundum ordinem alphabeti. Et est ordo alphabeti non solum in primis et secundis litteris vocabulorum hic positorum sed etiam in tertiis et quartis et caeteris litteris sequentibus usque ad finem eorum. Verbi gratia Aaron stat ante Abachuc ex eo quia licet ambae in hac littera a incipiunt, tamen secunda littera in Aaron praecedit secundam litteram in Abachuc. Etiam acentum stat ante acidum, quia licet in ipsis primae duae litterae concordant, tamen tertia littera in acetum praecedit tertiam in acidum et quarta littera in actor praecedit quartam in actrix et sic de aliis. Et licet talis ordinatio seu ordo in aliquibus vocabulis non praecise observatur vel forte hoc es propter aliquam convenientiam simul positorum vel forte ex inadvertentia. Ad meliorem autem intellectum et memoriam firmiorem, applicavi quibusdam vocabulis versus ex diversis autoribus collectos ..." Incipit, Basle 1475.

100. '[...] In verbis autem coniugatio aut ex secunda persona, aut ex infinitivo.' Second Preface, Thesaurus 1531.

101. Articles in the VFC and DLG are, of course, much longer, but we have selected only the lemmata which correspond to those in the CA, in order to illustrate the similarity of French glosses.

102. See Wooldridge 1977: 45 for diagrams illustrating the succession of Estienne's dictionaries.

103. Research in Early French LEXicography.